Influence of Exogenous Factors on Skin Aging

  • Avani Ahuja
  • Neha Singh
  • Prashant Gupta
  • Shivangi Mishra
  • Vibha Rani
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Being the most superficial organ, skin is constantly exposed to various insults in the surrounding majorly including ultraviolet rays (UVR), air pollutants, heavy metals, and cigarette smoke. Additionally, chemical ingredients in most of the cosmetic and dermatological products applied on the skin for its maintenance and protection negatively impact by contributing in the process of degeneration of skin cells. These exogenous factors further enhance the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggering the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory responses, hence damaging the extracellular matrix (ECM) components by stimulating skin aging through intrinsic factors. Certain UVR-sensitive genes also get activated by ROS, resulting in DNA damage and with compromised repair pathway, the cell undergoes the process of apoptosis. The alterations a cell undergoes after being exposed to environmental toxins contribute in its morphological and physiological deterioration resulting in dark spots, wrinkles, decreased elasticity, and dryness: characterizing aged skin. The present chapter discusses some of the major environmental pollutants and chemicals which influence the process of accelerated skin aging.

Keywords

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Premature Aging Skin Aging Cosmetic Ingredient Tocopheryl Acetate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations

ECM

Extracellular matrix

HRT

Hormone replacement therapy

IR

Infra –red radiation

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinases

MMP-1

Matrix metalloproteinase-1

MWF

Metal working fluids

NO

Nitrogen oxide

PAH

Poly-aromatic hydrocarbons

PM

Particulate matter

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

TCDD

2,3 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

UV

Ultraviolet radiation

UVR

Ultraviolet radiation

VOC

Volatile organic compounds

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Avani Ahuja
    • 1
  • Neha Singh
    • 1
  • Prashant Gupta
    • 1
  • Shivangi Mishra
    • 1
  • Vibha Rani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyJaypee Institute of Information TechnologyNoidaIndia

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