Advertisement

The Paleoclimatic Record and Plio-Pleistocene Paleoenvironments

  • John Rowan
  • Kaye E. Reed
Living reference work entry

Abstract

New evidence from relatively recent methodological advances into hominin autecology presents interesting and often contradictory data. This article presents a broad overview of various paleoecological methods and summarizes what is known about the paleoecology of late Miocene hominins, through the hominin genera that begin to appear in the early Pleistocene, ~2.0 Ma. The use of taxon-free methods is emphasized in elucidating hominin habitats, and a more careful consideration of taphonomic and depositional biases that often result in “mosaic” reconstructions is advocated. Methods that focus on understanding the behavioral ecology of early hominin and other mammalian taxa are reviewed.

Keywords

Carbon Isotope Late Miocene Woody Cover Early Hominins Dental Microwear 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Andrews P, Bamford M (2008) Past and present vegetation ecology of Laetoli, Tanzania. J Hum Evol 54(1):78–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Arambourg C, Coppens Y (1968) Découverte d’un australopithécien nouveau dans les gisements de l’Omo (Éthiopie). S Afr J Sci 64(2):58–59Google Scholar
  3. Asfaw B, White T, Lovejoy O, Latimer B, Simpson S, Suwa G (1999) Australopithecus garhi: a new species of early hominid from Ethiopia. Science 284(5414):629–635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bamford MK (2005) Early Pleistocene fossil wood from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Quat Int 129(1):15–22Google Scholar
  5. Bamford MK, Albert RM, Cabanes D (2006) Plio–Pleistocene macroplant fossil remains and phytoliths from Lowermost Bed II in the eastern palaeolake margin of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Quat Int 148(1):95–112Google Scholar
  6. Behrensmeyer AK, Reed KE (2013) Reconstructing the habitats of Australopithecus: Paleoenvironments, site taphonomy, and faunas. In: The paleobiology of Australopithecus. Springer, The Netherlands pp 41–60Google Scholar
  7. Berger LR, Clarke RJ (1995) Eagle involvement in accumulation of the Taung child fauna. J Hum Evol 29(3):275–299Google Scholar
  8. Berger LR, Tobias PV (1994) New discoveries at the early hominid site of Gladysvale, South Africa. Brain 250:19–23Google Scholar
  9. Berger LR, de Ruiter DJ, Churchill SE, Schmid P, Carlson KJ, Dirks PH, Kibii JM (2010) Australopithecus sediba: a new species of Homo-like australopith from South Africa. Science 328(5975):195–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bibi F, Souron A, Bocherens H, Uno K, Boisserie JR (2013) Ecological change in the lower Omo Valley around 2.8 Ma. Biol Lett 9(1):1–4Google Scholar
  11. Blondel C, Merceron G, Andossa L, Taisso MH, Vignaud P, Brunet M (2010) Dental mesowear analysis of the late Miocene Bovidae from Toros-Menalla (Chad) and early hominid habitats in Central Africa. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 292(1):184–191Google Scholar
  12. Bobe R, Behrensmeyer AK (2004) The expansion of grassland ecosystems in Africa in relation to mammalian evolution and the origin of the genus Homo. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 207(3):399–420Google Scholar
  13. Bobe R, Eck GG (2001) Responses of African bovids to Pliocene climatic change. Paleobiology 27(sp2):1–48Google Scholar
  14. Bobe R, Behrensmeyer AK, Eck GG, Harris JM (2007) Patterns of abundance and diversity in late Cenozoic bovids from the Turkana and Hadar Basins, Kenya and Ethiopia. In: Bobe R, Alemsged Z, Behrensmey AK (eds) Hominin environments in the East African Pliocene: an assessment of the faunal evidence. Springer, The Netherlands, pp 129–157Google Scholar
  15. Bonnefille R, Riollet G (1980) Pollens of the East African savanna. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, ParisGoogle Scholar
  16. Bonnefille R, Potts R, Chalié F, Jolly D, Peyron O (2004) High-resolution vegetation and climate change associated with Pliocene Australopithecus afarensis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(33):12125–12129PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brain CK (ed) (1993) Swartkrans: a cave’s chronicle of early man. Transvaal Museum monograph. Transvaal Museum, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  18. Broom R, (1938) The pleistocene anthropoid apes of South Africa. Nature 142:377–379Google Scholar
  19. Brunet M, Beauvilain A, Coppens Y, Heintz E, Moutaye AH, Pilbeam D (1995) The first australopithecine 2,500 kilometres west of the Rift Valley (Chad). Nature 378(6554):273–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brunet M, Guy F, Pilbeam D, Mackaye HT, Likius A, Ahounta D, Zollikofer C (2002) A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa. Nature 418(6894):145–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Campisano CJ (2007) Tephrostratigraphy and hominin paleoenvironments of the Hadar Formation, Afar Depression, Ethiopia (Doctoral dissertation, Rutgers University-Graduate School-New Brunswick)Google Scholar
  22. Cerling TE, Hay RL (1986) An isotopic study of paleosol carbonates from Olduvai Gorge. Quaternary Research, 25(1):63–78Google Scholar
  23. Cerling TE (1992) Use of carbon isotopes in paleosols as an indicator of the P (CO2) of the paleoatmosphere. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 6(3):307–314Google Scholar
  24. Cerling TE, Wynn JG, Andanje SA, Bird MI, Korir DK, Levin NE, Remien CH (2011a) Woody cover and hominin environments in the past 6 [thinsp] million years. Nature 476(7358):51–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cerling TE, Mbua E, Kirera FM, Manthi FK, Grine FE, Leakey MG, Uno KT (2011b) Diet of Paranthropus boisei in the early Pleistocene of East Africa. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108(23):9337–9341PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cerling TE, Manthi FK, Mbua EN, Leakey LN, Leakey MG, Leakey RE, Wood BA (2013) Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins. Proc Natl Acad Sci 110:10501–10506PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Chase JM, Amarasekare P, Cottenie K, Gonzalesz A, Holt RD, Holyoak M, Hoopes MF, Leibold MA, Loreau M, Mouquet N, Shurin JB, Tilman D (2005) Competing theories for competitive metacommunities. In: Holyoak M, Leibold MA, Holt RD (eds) Metacommunities: spatial dynamics and ecological communities. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA, pp 334–354Google Scholar
  28. Clarke R (2013) Australopithecus from Sterkfontein Caves, South Africa. In: The paleobiology of Australopithecus. Springer, The Netherlands, pp 105–123Google Scholar
  29. Copeland SR, Sponheimer M, de Ruiter DJ, Lee-Thorp JA, Codron D, le Roux PJ, Richards MP (2011) Strontium isotope evidence for landscape use by early hominins. Nature 474(7349):76–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dart RA (1958) A further adolescent australopithecine ilium from Makapansgat. Am J Phys Anthropol, 16(4):473–479Google Scholar
  31. Dart RA (1925) Australopithecus africanus: the man-ape of South Africa. Nature 115:195–199Google Scholar
  32. de Heinzelin J, Clark JD, White T, Hart W, Renne P, WoldeGabriel G, Vrba E (1999) Environment and behavior of 2.5-million-year-old Bouri hominids. Science 284(5414):625–629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. de Ruiter DJ, Pickering R, Steininger CM, Kramers JD, Hancox PJ, Churchill SE, Backwell L (2009) New Australopithecus robustus fossils and associated U-Pb dates from Cooper’s Cave (Gauteng, South Africa). J Hum Evol 56(5):497–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. DeGusta D, Vrba E (2003) A method for inferring paleohabitats from the functional morphology of bovid astragali. J Archaeol Sci 30(8):1009–1022Google Scholar
  35. DeGusta D, Vrba E (2005a) Methods for inferring paleohabitats from discrete traits of the bovid postcranial skeleton. J Archaeol Sci 32(7):1115–1123Google Scholar
  36. DeGusta D, Vrba E (2005b) Methods for inferring paleohabitats from the functional morphology of bovid phalanges. J Archaeol Sci 32(7):1099–1113Google Scholar
  37. deMenocal PB (1995) Plio-pleistocene African climate. Science 270(5233):53–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Demenocal PB (2004) African climate change and faunal evolution during the Pliocene–Pleistocene. Earth Planet Sci Lett 220(1):3–24Google Scholar
  39. Dirks PH, Kibii JM, Kuhn BF, Steininger C, Churchill SE, Kramers JD, Berger LR (2010) Geological setting and age of Australopithecus sediba from southern Africa. Science 328(5975):205–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Estes RD (2013) Hippotragus niger Sable Antelope. In: Kingdon J, Hoffmann M (eds) Mammals of Africa. Volume VI: hippopotamuses, chevrotain, giraffes, deer and bovids. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, pp 556–565Google Scholar
  41. Feakins SJ, Levin NE, Liddy HM, Sieracki A, Eglinton TI, Bonnefille R (2013) Northeast African vegetation change over 12 my. Geology 41(3):295–298Google Scholar
  42. Fortelius M, Solounias N (2000) Functional characterization of ungulate molars using the abrasion-attrition wear gradient: a new method for reconstructing paleodiets. Am Mus Novit 3301:1–36Google Scholar
  43. Fritz H, Bourgarel M (2013) Aepyceros melampus impala. In: Kingdon J, Hoffmann M (eds) Mammals of Africa. Volume VI: hippopotamuses, chevrotain, giraffes, deer and bovids. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, pp 480–497Google Scholar
  44. Gentry AW (2011) Bovidae. In: Harrison T (ed) Paleontology and geology of Laetoli: human evolution in context. Springer, The Netherlands, pp 363–465Google Scholar
  45. Geraads D, Brunet M, Mackaye HT, Vignaud P (2001) Pliocene Bovidae (Mammalia) from the Koro Toro Australopithecine sites, Chad. J Vertebr Paleontol 21(2):335–346Google Scholar
  46. Geraads D, Melillo S, Haile-Selassie Y (2009) Middle Pliocene Bovidae from hominid-bearing sites in the Woranso-Mille area, Afar region, Ethiopia. Palaeontol Afr 44:59–70Google Scholar
  47. Geraads D, Bobe R, Reed K (2012) Pliocene Bovidae (Mammalia) from the Hadar formation of Hadar and Ledi-Geraru, Lower Awash, Ethiopia. J Vertebr Paleontol 32(1):180–197Google Scholar
  48. Grine FE (1986) Dental evidence for dietary differences in Australopithecus and Paranthropus: a quantitative analysis of permanent molar microwear. J Hum Evol 15(8):783–822Google Scholar
  49. Grine FE, Kay RF (1988) Early hominid diets from quantitative image analysis of dental microwear. Nature 333(6175):765–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Grine FE, Ungar PS, Teaford MF, El-Zaatari S (2006) Molar microwear in Praeanthropus afarensis: evidence for dietary stasis through time and under diverse paleoecological conditions. J Hum Evol 51(3):297–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Grine FE, Jacobs RL, Reed KE, Plavcan JM (2012a) The enigmatic molar from Gondolin, South Africa: implications for Paranthropus paleobiology. J Hum Evol 63:597–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Grine FE, Sponheimer M, Ungar PS, Lee-Thorp J, Teaford MF (2012b) Dental microwear and stable isotopes inform the paleoecology of extinct hominins. Am J Phys Anthropol 148(2):285–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Haile-Selassie Y, WoldeGabriel G (eds) (2009) Ardipithecus kadabba: late miocene evidence from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  54. Haile-Selassie Y, Saylor BZ, Deino A, Alene M, Latimer BM (2010) New hominid fossils from Woranso-Mille (Central Afar, Ethiopia) and taxonomy of early Australopithecus. Am J Phys Anthropol 141(3):406–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Harris JM, Cerling TE (2002) Dietary adaptations of extant and Neogene African suids. J Zool 256(1):45–54Google Scholar
  56. Harris JM, Leakey M (1993) The faunal context. The Nariokotome Homo erectus skeleton. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp 54–60Google Scholar
  57. Harrison T (2011) Hominins from the Upper Laetolil and Upper Ndolanya Beds, Laetoli. In: Harrison T (ed) Paleontology and geology of Laetoli: human evolution in context. Springer, The Netherlands, pp 141–188Google Scholar
  58. Henry AG, Brooks AS, Piperno DR (2011) Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets (Shanidar III, Iraq; Spy I and II, Belgium). Proc Natl Acad Sci 108(2):486–491PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Henry AG, Ungar PS, Passey BH, Sponheimer M, Rossouw L, Bamford M, Berger L (2012) The diet of Australopithecus sediba. Nature 487:90–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Herries AI, Pickering R, Adams JW, Curnoe D, Warr G, Latham AG, Shaw J (2013) A multi-disciplinary perspective on the age of Australopithecus in Southern Africa. In: The paleobiology of Australopithecus. Springer, The Netherlands, pp 21–40Google Scholar
  61. Hill A, Ward S, Deino A, Curtis G, Drake R (1992) Earliest Homo. Nature 355(6362):719–722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hodgkins JM (2012) Tracking climate-driven changes in neandertal subsistence behaviors and prey migration patterns. Ph.d. Dissertation, Arizona State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  63. Hubbell SP (2001) The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  64. Kaiser TM (2011) Feeding ecology and niche partitioning of the Laetoli ungulate faunas. In: Harrison T (ed) Paleontology and geology of Laetoli: human evolution in context. Springer, The Netherlands, pp 329–354Google Scholar
  65. Kimbel WH (1988) Identification of a partial cranium of Australopithecus afarensis from the Koobi Fora Formation, Kenya. J Hum Evol 17(7):647–656Google Scholar
  66. Kimbel WH, Delezene LK (2009) “Lucy” redux: a review of research on Australopithecus afarensis. Am J Phys Anthropol 140(S49):2–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kimbel WH, Walter RC, Johanson DC, Reed KE, Aronson JL, Assefa Z, Smith PE (1996) Late Pliocene Homo and Oldowan tools from the Hadar formation (Kada Hadar Member), Ethiopia. J Hum Evol 31(6):549–561Google Scholar
  68. Kingdon J, Hoffmann M (2013) Mammals of Africa (vol. V1). Bloomsbury Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  69. Kingston JD, Harrison T (2007) Isotopic dietary reconstructions of Pliocene herbivores at Laetoli: implications for early hominin paleoecology. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 243(3):272–306Google Scholar
  70. Knight M (2013) Oryx gazella Gemsbok. In: Kingdon J, Hoffmann M (eds) Mammals of Africa. Volume VI: Hippopotamuses, chevrotain, giraffes, deer and bovids. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, pp 572–576Google Scholar
  71. Kovarovic K, Andrews P (2007) Bovid postcranial ecomorphological survey of the Laetoli paleoenvironment. J Hum Evol 52(6):663–680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Kovarovic K, Slepkov R, McNulty KP (2013) Ecological continuity between Lower and Upper Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. J Hum Evol 64(6):538–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Le Fur S, Fara E, Mackaye HT, Vignaud P, Brunet M (2009) The mammal assemblage of the hominid site TM266 (Late Miocene, Chad Basin): ecological structure and paleoenvironmental implications. Naturwissenschaften 96(5):565–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Leakey LS (1959) A new fossil skull from Olduvai. Nature 184(4685):491–493Google Scholar
  75. Leakey MD, Harris JM (1987) Laetoli, a Pliocene site in northern Tanzania. Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  76. Leakey MG, Feibel CS, McDougall I, Walker A (1995) New four-million-year-old hominid species from Kanapoi and Allia Bay, Kenya. Nature 376(6541):565–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Leakey MG, Spoor F, Brown FH, Gathogo PN, Kiarie C, Leakey LN, McDougall I (2001) New hominin genus from eastern Africa shows diverse middle Pliocene lineages. Nature 410(6827):433–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Lee-Thorp J (2011) The demise of “Nutcracker Man”. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108(23):9319–9320PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lee-Thorp J, Likius A, Mackaye HT, Vignaud P, Sponheimer M, Brunet M (2012) Isotopic evidence for an early shift to C4 resources by Pliocene hominins in Chad. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109(50):20369–20372PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Levin NE, Simpson SW, Quade J, Cerling TE, Frost SR (2008) Herbivore enamel carbon isotopic composition and the environmental context of Ardipithecus at Gona, Ethiopia. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 446:215–234Google Scholar
  81. Louchart A, Wesselman H, Blumenschine RJ, Hlusko LJ, Njau JK, Black MT, White TD (2009) Taphonomic, avian, and small-vertebrate indicators of Ardipithecus ramidus habitat. Science 326(5949):66e1–66e4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lucas PW, Omar R, Al-Fadhalah K, Almusallam AS, Henry AG, Michael S, Atkins AG (2013) Mechanisms and causes of wear in tooth enamel: implications for hominin diets. R Soc Interface 10(80):1–9Google Scholar
  83. McPherron SP, Alemseged Z, Marean CW, Wynn JG, Reed D, Geraads D, Béarat HA (2010) Evidence for stone-tool-assisted consumption of animal tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika, Ethiopia. Nature 466(7308):857–860PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Merceron G, Blondel C, Brunet M, Sen S, Solounias N, Viriot L, Heintz E (2004) The Late Miocene paleoenvironment of Afghanistan as inferred from dental microwear in artiodactyls. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 207(1):143–163Google Scholar
  85. Newby J (2013) Addax nasomaculatus Addax. In: Kingdon J, Hoffmann M (eds) Mammals of Africa. Volume VI: Hippopotamuses, chevrotain, giraffes, deer and bovids. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, pp 566–571Google Scholar
  86. Pickford M, Senut B (2001) The geological and faunal context of Late Miocene hominid remains from Lukeino, Kenya. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sci-Ser IIA-Earth Planet Sci 332(2):145–152Google Scholar
  87. Plummer TW, Bishop LC (1994) Hominid paleoecology at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania as indicated by antelope remains. J Hum Evol 27(1):47–75Google Scholar
  88. Potts R (2013) Hominin evolution in settings of strong environmental variability. Quat Sci Rev 73:1–13Google Scholar
  89. Prat S, Brugal JP, Tiercelin JJ, Barrat JA, Bohn M, Delagnes A, Roche H (2005) First occurrence of early Homo in the Nachukui Formation (West Turkana, Kenya) at 2.3–2.4 Myr. J Hum Evol 49(2):230–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Pratt DJ, Gwynne MD (1977) Rangeland ecology and management in East Africa. Hodder and Sloughton, LondonGoogle Scholar
  91. Rak Y, Ginzburg A, Geffen E (2007) Gorilla-like anatomy on Australopithecus afarensis mandibles suggests Au. afarensis link to robust australopiths. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104(16):6568–6572PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Reed KE (1997) Early hominid evolution and ecological change through the African Plio-Pleistocene. J Hum Evol 32(2):289–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Reed KE (2008) Paleoecological patterns at the Hadar hominin site, Afar Regional State, Ethiopia. J Hum Evol 54(6):743–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Reed DN, Geraads D (2012) Evidence for a Late Pliocene faunal transition based on a new rodent assemblage from Oldowan locality Hadar AL 894, Afar Region, Ethiopia. J Hum Evol 62(3):328–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Reynolds S, Kibii J (2011) Sterkfontein at 75: review of palaeoenvironments, fauna and archaeology from the hominin site of Sterkfontein (Gauteng Province, South Africa). Palaeontol Afr 46:59–88Google Scholar
  96. Richmond BG, Jungers WL (2008) Orrorin tugenensis femoral morphology and the evolution of hominin bipedalism. Science 319(5870):1662–1665PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Robinson JT (1954) Prehominid dentition and hominid evolution. Evolution 8:324–334Google Scholar
  98. Salisbury CL, Seddon N, Cooney CR, Tobias JA (2012) The latitudinal gradient in dispersal constraints: ecological specialisation drives diversification in tropical birds. Ecol Lett 15:847–855PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Sawada Y, Pickford M, Senut B, Itaya T, Hyodo M, Miura T, Fujii H (2002) The age of Orrorin tugenensis, an early hominid from the Tugen Hills, Kenya. Comptes Rendus Palevol 1(5):293–303Google Scholar
  100. Schubert BW, Ungar PS, Sponheimer M, Reed KE (2006) Microwear evidence for Plio–Pleistocene bovid diets from Makapansgat Limeworks Cave, South Africa. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 241(2):301–319Google Scholar
  101. Scott RS, Ungar PS, Bergstrom TS, Brown CA, Grine FE, Teaford MF, Walker A (2005) Dental microwear texture analysis shows within-species diet variability in fossil hominins. Nature 436(7051):693–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Semaw S, Renne P, Harris JWK, Feibel CS, Bernor RL, Fesseha N, Mowbray K (1997) 2.5-million-year-old stone tools from Gona, Ethiopia. Nature 385:333–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Senut B, Pickford M, Gommery D, Mein P, Cheboi K, Coppens Y (2001) First hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino formation, Kenya). Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sci-Ser IIA-Earth Planet Sci 332(2):137–144Google Scholar
  104. Shipman P, Harris JM (1988) Habitat preference and paleoecology of Australopithecus boisei in Eastern Africa. In: Grine FE (ed) Evolutionary history of the “robust” australopithecines. Aldine de Gruyter, New York, pp 343–381Google Scholar
  105. Sikes NE (1994) Early hominid habitat preferences in East Africa: paleosol carbon isotopic evidence. J Hum Evol 27(1):25–45Google Scholar
  106. Spencer LM (1997) Dietary adaptations of Plio-Pleistocene Bovidae: implications for hominid habitat use. J Hum Evol 32(2):201–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Sponheimer M, Lee-Thorp JA (1999) Isotopic evidence for the diet of an early hominid, Australopithecus africanus. Science 283(5400):368–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Sponheimer M, Lee-Thorp JA, DeRuiter DJ, Smith JM, van der Merwe NJ, Reed K, Marcus W (2003) Diets of Southern African Bovidae: stable isotope evidence. J Mammal 84:471–479Google Scholar
  109. Sponheimer M, Reed KE, Lee-Thorp JA (1999) Combining isotopic and ecomorphological data to refine bovid paleodietary reconstruction: a case study from the Makapansgat Limeworks hominin locality. J Hum Evol 36(6):705–718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Sponheimer M, Lee-Thorp J, de Ruiter D, Codron D, Codron J, Baugh AT, Thackeray F (2005) Hominins, sedges, and termites: new carbon isotope data from the Sterkfontein valley and Kruger National Park. J Hum Evol 48(3):301–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Sponheimer M, Alemseged Z, Cerling TE, Grine FE, Kimbel WH, Leakey MG, Wynn JG (2013) Isotopic evidence of early hominin diets. Proc Natl Acad Sci 110(26):10513–10518PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. Su DF, Harrison T (2008) Ecological implications of the relative rarity of fossil hominins at Laetoli. J Hum Evol 55(4):672–681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Su DF, Ambrose SH, DeGusta D, Haile-Selassie Y (2009) Paleoenvironment. In: Ardipithecus kadabba. Late Miocene evidence from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. University of California Press, pp 521–548Google Scholar
  114. Suwa G, White TD, Howell FC (1996) Mandibular postcanine dentition from the Shungura formation, Ethiopia: crown morphology, taxonomic allocations, and Plio-Pleistocene hominid evolution. Am J Phys Anthropol 101(2):247–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Suwa G, Nakaya H, Asfaw B, Saegusa H, Amzaye A, Kono RT, Katoh S (2003) Plio-Pleistocene terrestrial mammal assemblage from Konso, southern Ethiopia. J Vertebr Paleontol 23(4):901–916Google Scholar
  116. Suwa G, Kono RT, Simpson SW, Asfaw B, Lovejoy CO, White TD (2009) Paleobiological implications of the Ardipithecus ramidus dentition. Science 326(5949):69–99Google Scholar
  117. Teaford MF (1988) A review of dental microwear and diet in modern mammals. Scanning Microsc 2(2):1149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Thouless CR (2013) Tragelaphus oryx common eland. In: Kingdon J, Hoffmann M (eds) Mammals of Africa. Volume VI: Hippopotamuses, chevrotain, giraffes, deer and bovids. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, pp 191–198Google Scholar
  119. Ungar PS, Sponheimer M (2011) The diets of early hominins. Science 334(6053):190–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Ungar PS, Grine FE, Teaford MF, El Zaatari S (2006) Dental microwear and diets of African early Homo. J Hum Evol 50(1):78–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Ungar PS, Grine FE, Teaford MF (2008) Dental microwear and diet of the Plio-Pleistocene hominin Paranthropus boisei. PLoS One 3(4):e2044PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Ungar PS, Scott RS, Grine FE, Teaford MF (2010a) Molar microwear textures and the diets of Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis. Phil Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 365(1556):3345–3354Google Scholar
  123. Ungar PS, Scott JR, Schubert BW, Stynder DD (2010b) Carnivoran dental microwear textures: comparability of carnassial facets and functional differentiation of postcanine teeth. Mammalia 74(2):219–224Google Scholar
  124. van der Merwe NJ, Masao FT, Bamford MK (2008) Isotopic evidence for contrasting diets of early hominins Homo habilis and Australopithecus boisei of Tanzania. S Afr J Sci 104(3–4):153–155Google Scholar
  125. Vignaud P, Duringer P, Mackaye HT, Likius A, Blondel C, Boisserie JR, Brunet M (2002) Geology and palaeontology of the Upper Miocene Toros-Menalla hominid locality, Chad. Nature 418(6894):152–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Vrba ES (1980) The significance of bovid remains as indicators of environment and predation patterns. In: Beherensmeyer AK, Hill AP (eds) Fossils in the making: vertebrate taphonomy and paleoecology. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  127. Vrba ES (1985) Ecological and adaptive changes associated with early hominid evolution. Ancestors: the hard evidence. Alan R. Liss, New York, pp 63–71Google Scholar
  128. Vrba ES (1995) On the connections between paleoclimate and evolution. In: Vrba ES, Denton GH,Partridge TC, Burckle LH (eds) Paleoclimate and evolution, with emphasis on human origins. pp 24–45Google Scholar
  129. Walker A, Hoeck HN, Perez L (1978) Microwear of mammalian teeth as an indicator of diet. Science 201(4359):908–910PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Walker A, Leakey RE, Harris JM, Brown FH (1986) 2.5-myr Australopithecus boisei from west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. Nature 322:517–522Google Scholar
  131. White F (1983) The vegetation of Africa: a descriptive memoir to accompany the UNESCO/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa (Natural Resources Research 20). UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, ParisGoogle Scholar
  132. White T (2002) Earliest hominids. In: Hartwig W (ed) The primate fossil record. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp 407–417Google Scholar
  133. White TD, Suwa G, Hart WK, Walter RC, WoldeGabriel G, Heinzelin JD, Vrba E (1993) New discoveries of Australopithecus at Maka in Ethiopia. Nature 366:261–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. White TD, Suwa G, Simpson S, Asfaw B (2000) Jaws and teeth of Australopithecus afarensis from Maka, Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Am J Phys Anthropol 111(1):45–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. White TD, WoldeGabriel G, Asfaw B, Ambrose S, Beyene Y, Bernor RL, Suwa G (2006) Asa Issie, Aramis and the origin of Australopithecus. Nature 440(7086):883–889PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. White TD, Ambrose SH, Suwa G, Su DF, DeGusta D, Bernor RL, Vrba E (2009) Macrovertebrate paleontology and the Pliocene habitat of Ardipithecus ramidus. Science 326(5949):67–93Google Scholar
  137. WoldeGabriel G, Hart WK, Renne PR, Haile-Selassie Y, White T (2009) Stratigraphy of the Adu–Asa formation. In: Haile-Selassie Y, WoldeGabriel G (eds) Ardipithecus kadabba: Late Miocene evidence from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 27–62Google Scholar
  138. Wood B, Harrison T (2011) The evolutionary context of the first hominins. Nature 470(7334):347–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Wood B, Strait D (2004) Patterns of resource use in early Homo and Paranthropus. J Hum Evol 46(2):119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Wynn JG, Alemseged Z, Bobe R, Geraads D, Reed D, Roman DC (2006) Geological and palaeontological context of a Pliocene juvenile hominin at Dikika, Ethiopia. Nature 443(7109):332–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Wynn JG, Sponheimer M, Kimbel WH, Alemseged Z, Reed K, Bedaso ZK, Wilson JN (2013) Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar formation, Ethiopia. Proc Natl Acad Sci 110:10495PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Zachos J, Pagani M, Sloan L, Thomas E, Billups K (2001) Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science 292(5517):686–693PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Human Evolution and Social ChangeInstitute of Human Origins, Arizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations