The Dentition of American Indians: Evolutionary Results and Demographic Implications Following Colonization from Siberia

  • Christy G. TurnerII
  • Prof. G. Richard Scott
Living reference work entry


This chapter uses dental morphology to make inferences about how the New World was first colonized. The major emphasis is on the initial Macro-Indian migration based on dental traits observed in Paleo-Indian, Archaic, and more recent prehistoric crania. The major results are as follows: (1) Arctic and Subarctic native dentitions differ enough from those of Macro-Indians to indicate separate migrations. (2) Clustered MMD values show three Macro-Indian branches of North Americans, South Americans, and mixed North and South. (3) There is no marked branching depth for these three dental divisions, which fits the hypothesis of a single rapid Paleo-Indian colonization event. (4) The minimally divergent North and South American dental divisions are most likely the microevolutionary result of dispersal-dependent population structure and lineage effects. (5) No genetic bottlenecking can be identified at Panama. (6) The small amount of New World internal dental divergence favors colonization of South America soon after the settlement of North America. (7) There are no obvious clines, frequency trends, or geographic groupings for individual dental traits. This suggests little or no selection and that after leaving Siberia, population size increased sufficiently to limit genetic drift. (8) There is no sign of any Old World or Oceanic dental pattern other than Northeast Asian Sinodonty. All things considered, including New World and Siberian linguistics, archaeology, genetics, route considerations, and relevant natural history, dental analysis supports the Late Pleistocene ice-free corridor, Clovis or epi-Clovis settlement hypothesis, and the Greenberg Amerind or Macro-Indian language evolution model.


Late Pleistocene Dental Variation Dental Morphology Dental Pattern Trait Frequency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Alekseev VP (1979) Anthropometry of Siberian peoples. In: Laughlin WS, Harper AB (eds) The first Americans: origins, affinities and adaptations. Gustav Fischer, New York, pp 57–90Google Scholar
  2. Alekseev VP (1998) The physical specificities of Paleolithic hominids in Siberia. In: Derev'anko AP, Shimkin DB, Powers WR (eds) (Laricheva IP, trans) The Paleolithic of Siberia: new discoveries and interpretations. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, pp 329–335Google Scholar
  3. Berry AC (1978) Anthropological and family studies on minor variants of the dental crown. In: Butler PM, Joysey KA (eds) Development, function and evolution of teeth. Academic, New York, pp 81–98Google Scholar
  4. Berry AC, Berry RJ (1967) Epigenetic variation in the human cranium. J Anat 101:361–379PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Birdsell JB (1951) The problem of the early peopling of the Americas as viewed from Asia. In: Laughlin WS (ed) The physical anthropology of the American Indian. Viking Fund, New York, pp 1–69Google Scholar
  6. Bonatto SL, Salzano FM (1997) Diversity and age of the four major mtDNA haplogroups, and their implications for the peopling of the New World. Am J Hum Genet 61:1413–1423PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Boyd WC (1950) Genetics and the races of man. Little, Brown and Company, BostonGoogle Scholar
  8. Brace CL, Nelson AR, Seguchi N, Oe H, Sering L, Qifneg P, Yongyi L (2001) Old World sources of the first New World human inhabitants: a comparative craniofacial view. Proc Natl Acad Sci 98:10017–10022PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown MD, Hosseini SH, Torroni A, Bandelt H-J, Allen JC, Schurr TG, Scozzari R, Cruciani F, Wallace DC (1998) mtDNA haplogroup X: an ancient link between Europe/western Asia and North America. Am J Hum Genet 63:1852–1861PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Burnett SE, Irish JD, Fong MR (1998) How much is too much? Examining the effect of dental wear on studies of dental morphology. Am J Phys Anthropol 26(Suppl):115–116Google Scholar
  11. Callegari-Jacques SM, Salzano FM, Constans J, Maurieres P (1993) Gm haplotype distribution in Amerindians: relationship with geography and language. Am J Phys Anthropol 90:427–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cann RL (1988) DNA and human origins. Annual Rev Anthropol 17:127–143Google Scholar
  13. Carlson RL (1991) Clovis from the perspective of the ice-free corridor. In: Bonnichsen R, Turnmire KL (eds) Clovis: origins and adaptations. Oregon State University, Corvallis, pp 81–90, Center for the Study of the First AmericansGoogle Scholar
  14. Carter GF (1957) Pleistocene man at San Diego. Johns Hopkins Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  15. Cavalli-Sforza LL, Piazza A, Menozzi P, Mountain J (1988) Reconstruction of human evolution: bringing together genetic, archaeological, and linguistic data. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:6002–6006PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cavalli-Sforza LL, Menozzi P, Piazza A (1994) The history and geography of human genes. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen T, Hedges REM, Zhenxin Y (1992) The second batch of accelerator radiocarbon dates for Upper Cave site of Zhoukoudian. Acta Anthropol Sin 11:112–116Google Scholar
  18. Crawford MH (1992) When two worlds collide. Hum Biol 64:271–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Dillehay TD, Meltzer DJ (1991) The first Americans: search and research. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  20. Dixon EJ (1999) Bones, boats, and bison. University of New Mexico Press, AlbuquerqueGoogle Scholar
  21. Elias SA (2002) Setting the stage: environmental conditions in Beringia as people entered the New World. In: Jablonski NG (ed) The first Americans: the Pleistocene colonization of the New World. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences 27, San Francisco, pp 255–271Google Scholar
  22. Eshleman JA, Malhi RS, Smith DG (2003) Mitochondrial DNA studies of native Americans: conceptions and misconceptions of the population prehistory of the Americas. Evol Anthropol 12:7–18Google Scholar
  23. Fiedel SJ (2004) The Kennewick follies: “new” theories about the peopling of the Americas. J Anthropol Res 60:75–110Google Scholar
  24. Forster P, Harding R, Torroni A, Bandelt H-J (1996) Origin and evolution of Native American mtDNA variation: a reappraisal. Am J Hum Genet 59:935–945PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Fox RB (1970) The Tabon caves: archaeological explorations and excavations on Palawan Island, Philippines. National Museum Monograph 1, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  26. Goebel T, Waters MR, Dikova M (2003) The archaeology of Ushki Lake, Kamchatka, and the Pleistocene peopling of the Americas. Science 301:501–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Graf KE, Ketron CV, Waters MR (eds) (2013) Paleoamerican odyssey. Center for the Study of the First Americans, College StationGoogle Scholar
  28. Greenberg JH (1990) The American Indian language controversy. Rev Archaeol 11:5–14Google Scholar
  29. Greenberg JH, Ruhlen M (1992) Linguistic origins of Native Americans. Sci Am 267:94–99Google Scholar
  30. Greenberg JH, Turner CG II, Zegura SL (1986) The settlement of the Americas: a comparison of the linguistic, dental, and genetic evidence. Curr Anthropol 27:477–497Google Scholar
  31. Haeussler AMF (1996) Dental anthropology of Russia, Ukraine, Caucasus, Central Asia: the evaluation of five hypotheses for Paleo-Indian origins. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, TempeGoogle Scholar
  32. Haeussler AM, Turner CG II (1992) The dentition of Soviet central Asians and the quest for New World ancestors. In: Lukacs JR (guest ed) J Hum Ecol (Special Issue) (Culture, Ecology and Dental Anthropology) 2:273–297Google Scholar
  33. Hall DA (2000) Charting a new era. Mammoth Trumpet 15:1–7Google Scholar
  34. Hammer MF, Zegura SL (2002) The human Y chromosome haplogroup tree: nomenclature and phylogeny of its major divisions. Annu Rev Anthropol 31:303–321Google Scholar
  35. Hanihara K (1979) Dental traits in Ainu, Australian Aborigines, and New World populations. In: Laughlin WS, Harper AB (eds) The first Americans: origins, affinities, and adaptations. Gustav Fischer, New York, pp 125–134Google Scholar
  36. Hanihara T (1991) The origin and microevolution of Ainu as viewed from dentition: the basic populations in East Asia, VIII. J Anthropol Soc Nippon 99:345–361Google Scholar
  37. Hanihara K (1968) Mongoloid dental complex in the permanent dentition. Proceedings of the VIIIth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, vol 1. Science Council of Japan, Tokyo, pp 298–300Google Scholar
  38. Harper AB (1980) Origins and divergence of Aleuts, Eskimos and American Indians. Annu Hum Biol 7:547–554Google Scholar
  39. Harris EF (1977) Anthropological and genetic aspects of the dental morphology of Solomon islanders, Melanesia. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, TempeGoogle Scholar
  40. Harris EF, Turner CG II (1974) Sjo-68 dental morphology and its bearing on the "dihybrid" theory of American Indian origins. Contributions of the University of California Archaeological Research Facility No. 22, pp 1–46Google Scholar
  41. Hawkey DE (1998) Out of Asia: dental evidence for microevolution and affinities of early populations from India/Sri Lanka. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, TempeGoogle Scholar
  42. Haynes CV Jr (1987) Clovis origins update. Kiva 52:83–93Google Scholar
  43. Haynes CV Jr (1991) More on Meadowcroft radiocarbon chronology. Rev Archaeol 12:8–14Google Scholar
  44. Haynes G (2002a) The early settlement of North America: the Clovis era. University of Cambridge Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  45. Haynes G (2002b) Reviews of bones, boats, and bison: archaeology and the first colonization of Western North America, by EJ Dixon; and The settlement of the Americas: a new prehistory, by TD Dillehay. North Am Archaeol 23:72–78Google Scholar
  46. Hoffecker JF, Elias SA (2003) Environment and archeology in Beringia. Evol Anthropol 12:34–49Google Scholar
  47. Hoffecker JF, Powers WR, Goebel T (1993) The colonization of Beringia and the peopling of the New World. Science 259:46–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hopkins DM (1982) Aspects of the paleogeography of Beringia during the Late Pleistocene. In: Hopkins DM, Matthews JV Jr, Schweger CE, Young SB (eds) Paleoecology of Beringia. Academic, New York, pp 3–28Google Scholar
  49. Horai S, Kondo R, Murayama K, Hayashi S, Koike H, Nakai N (1991) Phylogenetic affiliation of ancient and contemporary humans inferred from mitochondrial DNA. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 333:409–417Google Scholar
  50. Horai S, Kondo R, Nakasawa-Hattori Y, Hayashi S, Sonoda S, Tajima K (1993) Peopling of the Americas, founded by four major lineages of mitochondrial DNA. Mol Biol Evol 10:23–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Howells WW (1989) Skull shapes and the map: craniometric analyses in the dispersion of modern Homo. Papers of the Peabody Museum, Harvard University No. 79, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  52. Hrdlička A (1925) The origin and antiquity of the American Indian. Smithsonian Report for 1923, Publication No. 2778. Smithsonian Press, Washington, DC, pp 481–494Google Scholar
  53. Irish JD (1993) Biological affinities of late Pleistocene through modern African aboriginal populations: the dental evidence. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, TempeGoogle Scholar
  54. Jantz RL, Owsley DW (2001) Variation among early North American crania. Am J Phys Anthropol 114:146–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Jantz RL, Hunt DR, Falsetti AB, Key PJ (1992) Variation among North Amerindians: analysis of Boas’s anthropometric data. Hum Biol 64:435–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Jelinek AJ (1992) Perspectives from the Old World on the habitation of the New. Am Antiq 57:345–347Google Scholar
  57. Jobling MA, Hurles ME, Tyler-Smith C (2004) Human evolutionary genetics: origins, peoples & disease. Garland Science, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. Karafet TM, Zegura SL, Posukh O, Osipova L, Bergen A, Long J, Goldman D, Klitz W, Harihara S, de Knijff P, Wiebe V, Griffiths RC, Templeton AR, Hammer MF (1999) Ancestral Asian source(s) of New World Y-chromosome founder haplotypes. Am J Hum Genet 64:817–831PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kohn LAP (1991) The role of genetics in craniofacial morphology and growth. Annu Rev Anthropol 20:261–278Google Scholar
  60. Kolman CJ, Sambuughin N, Bermingham E (1996) Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Mongolian populations and implications for the origin of New World founders. Genetics 142:1321–1334PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kozintsev AG (1995) Where did the American Indians come from? Am J Phys Anthropol 20(Suppl):126Google Scholar
  62. Krieger AD (1964) Early man in the New World. In: Jennings JD, Norbeck E (eds) Prehistoric man in the New World. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 23–91Google Scholar
  63. Kunz ML, Reanier RE (1994) Paleoindians in Beringia: evidence from Arctic Alaska. Science 263:660–662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Lahr MM (1995) Patterns of modern human diversification: implications for Amerindian origins. Yrbk Phys Anthropol 38:163–198Google Scholar
  65. Lahr MM, Haydenblit R (1995) Traces of ancestral morphology in Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia. Am J Phys Anthropol 20(Suppl):128Google Scholar
  66. Lampl M, Blumberg BS (1979) Blood polymorphisms and the origins of New World populations. In: Laughlin WS, Harper AB (eds) The first Americans: origins, affinities and adaptations. Gustav Fischer, New York, pp 107–123Google Scholar
  67. Laughlin WS (1951) The Alaska gateway viewed from the Aleutian Islands. In: Laughlin WS (ed) The physical anthropology of the American Indian. The Viking Fund, Inc., New York, pp 98–126Google Scholar
  68. Laughlin WS (1963) Eskimos and Aleuts: their origins and evolution. Science 142:633–645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Laughlin WS (1966) Genetical and anthropological characteristics of Arctic populations. In: Baker PT, Weiner JS (eds) The biology of human adaptability. Clarendon, Oxford, pp 469–495Google Scholar
  70. Laughlin WS, Harper AB (1988) Peopling of the continents: Australia and America. In: Mascie-Taylor CG, Lasker GW (eds) Biological aspects of human migration. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 14–40Google Scholar
  71. Laukhin SA (1997) The late Pleistocene glaciation in the northern Chukchi Peninsula. Quat Int 41(42):33–41Google Scholar
  72. Lell JT, Sukernik RI, Starikovskaya YB, Su B, Jin L, Schurr TG, Underhill PA, Wallace DC (2002) The dual origin and Siberian affinities of Native American Y chromosomes. Am J Hum Genet 70:192–206PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Long JC (1993) Human molecular phylogenetics. Annu Rev Anthropol 22:251–272Google Scholar
  74. Lorenz JG, Smith DG (1994) Distribution of the 9-bp mitochondrial DNA region V deletion among North American Indians. Hum Biol 66:777–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lorenz JG, Smith DG (1996) Distribution of four founding mtDNA haplogroups among Native North Americans. Am J Phys Anthropol 101:307–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lynch TF (1991) Lack of evidence for glacial-age settlement of South America: reply to Dillehay and Collins and to Gruhn and Bryan. J Hum Evol 21:261–273Google Scholar
  77. MacNeish RS (1976) Early man in the New World. Am Sci 64:316–322Google Scholar
  78. Madsen DB (2004) Entering America: Northeast Asia and Beringia before the last glacial maximum. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake CityGoogle Scholar
  79. Malhi RS, Eschelman JA, Greenberg JA, Weiss DA, Schultz BA, Schultz Shook BA, Kaestle FA, Lorenz JG, Kemp BM, Johnson JR, Smith DG (2002) The structure of diversity within New World mitochondrial DNA haplogroups: implications for the prehistory of North America. dAm J Hum Genet 70:905–919Google Scholar
  80. Martin PS (1990) 40,000 years of extinctions on the “planet of doom.”. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 82:187–201Google Scholar
  81. Meltzer DJ (1993) Pleistocene peopling of the Americas. Evol Anthropol 1:157–169Google Scholar
  82. Merriwether DA (1995) Distribution of the four-founding lineage haplotypes in Native Americans suggests a single wave of migration for the New World. Am J Phys Anthropol 98:411–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Merriwether DA (2002) A mitochondrial perspective on the peopling of the New World. In: Jablonski NG (ed) The Pleistocene colonization of the New World. Memoirs of the California Academy of Science 27, San Francisco, pp 295–310Google Scholar
  84. Merriwether DA, Hall W, Vahlne A, Ferrell RE (1996) mtDNA variation indicates Mongolia may have been the source for the founding population of the New World. Am J Hum Genet 59:204–212PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Mizoguchi Y (1985) Shovelling: a statistical analysis of its morphology. University of Tokyo Press, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  86. Mourant AE (1954) The distribution of the human blood groups. Blackwell Scientific, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  87. Mourant AE, Kopec AC, Domaniewska-Sobczak K (1976) The distribution of the human blood groups and other polymorphisms. Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  88. Müller-Beck H (1967) On migrations of hunters across the Bering land bridge. In: Hopkins DH (ed) The Bering land bridge. Stanford University Press, Stanford, pp 373–408Google Scholar
  89. Neves WA, Pucciarelli HM (1991) Morphological affinities of the first Americans: an exploratory analysis based on early South American human remains. J Hum Evol 21:261–273Google Scholar
  90. Nichol CR (1990) Dental genetics and biological relationships of the Pima Indians of Arizona. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, TempeGoogle Scholar
  91. O’Rourke DH (2009) Human migrations: the two roads taken. Curr Biol 19:203–205Google Scholar
  92. Owsley DW (2013) Bioarchaeological biographies of ancient Americans. Paper presented at Paleoamerican Odyssey conference, Santa Fe, NM, Oct 2013Google Scholar
  93. Perego UA, Achilli A, Angerhofer H, Acceturro M, Pala M, Oliveri A, Kashani BH, Ritchie KH, Scozzari R, Kong Q-P, Myres NM, Salas A, Semino O, Bandelt H-J, Woodward SR, Torroni A (2009) Distinctive Paleo-Indian migration routes from Beringia marked by two rare mtDNA haplogroups. Curr Biol 19:1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Perzigian AJ (1984) Human odontometric variation: an evolutionary and taxonomic assessment. Anthropol 22:193–198Google Scholar
  95. Pitulko V, Nikolskiy P, Basilyan A, Pavlova E (2013) Human habitation in Arctic western Beringia prior to the LGM. In: Graf KE, Ketron CV, Waters MR (eds) Paleoamerican Odyssey. Center for the Study of the First Americans, College Station, pp 13–44Google Scholar
  96. Pope GG (1992) Craniofacial evidence for the origin of modern humans in China. Yrbk Phys Anthropol 35:243–298Google Scholar
  97. Powell JF (1993) Dental evidence for the peopling of the New World: some methodological considerations. Hum Biol 65:799–819PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Powell JF, Neves WA (1999) Craniofacial morphology of the first Americans: pattern and process in the peopling of the New World. Yrbk Phys Anthropol 42:153–188Google Scholar
  99. Powell JF, Rose JC (1999) Report on the osteological assessment of the "Kennewick Man" skeleton (CENWW.97.Kennewick). Internet ParknetGoogle Scholar
  100. Powers WR, Goebel TE, Bigelow NH (1990) Late Pleistocene occupation at Walker Road: new data on the central Alaskan Nenana Complex. Curr Res Pleistocene 7:40–43Google Scholar
  101. Reich D, Patterson N, Campbell D, Tandon A, Mazieres S, Ray N, Parra MV, Rojas W, Duque C, Mesa N, Garcia LF, Triana O, Blair S, Maestre A, Dib JC, Bravi CM, Bailliet G, Corach D, Hünemeier T, Bortolini MC, Salzano FM, Petzl-Erler ML, Acuna-Alonzo V, Aguilar-Salinas C, Canizales-Quinteros S, Tusié-Luna T, Riba L, Rodriguez-Cruz M, Lopez-Alarcón M, Coral-Vasquez R, Canto-Cetina T, Silva-Zolezzi I, Fernandez-Lopez JC, Contreras AV, Jiminez-Sanchez G, Gómez-Vázquez MJ, Molina J, Carracedo A, Salas A, Gallo C, Poletti G, Witonsky DB, Alkorta-Aranburu G, Sukernik RI, Osipova L, Federova SA, Vasquez R, Villena M, Moreau C, Barrantes R, Pauls D, Excoffier L, Bedoya G, Rothhammer F, Dugoujon J-M, Larrouy G, Klitz W, Labuda D, Kidd J, Kidd K, Di Rienzo A, Freimer NB, Price AL, Ruiz-Lenares A (2012) Reconstructing native American population history. Nature 488:370–375PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Reidla M, Kivisild T, Metspalu E, Kaldma K, Tambets K, Tolk H-V, Parik J, Loogväli E-L, Derenko M, Malyarchuk B, Bermisheva M, Zhadanov S, Pennarun E, Gubina M, Golubenko M, Damba L, Fedorova S, Gusar V, Grechanina E, Mikerezi I, Moisan J-P, Chaventré A, Khusnutdinova E, Osipova L, Stepanov V, Voevoda M, Achilli A, Rengo C, Rickards O, De Stefano GF, Papiha S, Beckman L, Janicijevic B, Rudan P, Anagnou N, Michalodimitrakis E, Koziel S, Usanga E, Geberhiwot T, Herrnstadt C, Howell N, Torroni A, Villems R (2003) Origin and diffusion of mtDNA haplogroup X. Am J Hum Genet 73:1178–1190PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Roberts RG, Jones R, Smith MA (1994) Beyond the radiocarbon barrier in Australia. Antiquity 68:611–616Google Scholar
  104. Rogers RA, Rogers LA, Martin LD (1992) How the door opened: the peopling of the New World. Hum Biol 64:281–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Roychoudhury AK, Nei M (1988) Human polymorphic genes: world distribution. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  106. Ruhlen M (2000) Some unanswered linguistic questions. In: Renfrew C (ed) America past, America present: genes and languages in the Americas and beyond. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, pp 163–175Google Scholar
  107. Ruiz-Linares A, Ortiz Barrientos D, Figueroa M, Mesa N, Munera JG, Bedoya G, Velez ID, Garcia LF, Perez-Lezuan A, Bertranpetit J, Feldman MW, Goldstein DB (1999) Microsatellites provide evidence for Y chromosome diversity among the founders of the New World. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:6312–6317PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Schanfield MS (1992) Immunoglobulin allotypes (GM and KM) indicate multiple founding populations of Native Americans: evidence of at least four migrations to the New World. Hum Biol 64:381–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Schurr TG (2004a) The peopling of the New World: perspectives from molecular anthropology. Annu Rev Anthropol 33:551–583Google Scholar
  110. Schurr TG (2004b) Molecular genetic diversity in Siberians and Native Americans suggests an early colonization of the New World. In: Madsen DB (ed) Entering America: Northeast Asia and Beringia before the last glacial maximum. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, pp 187–238Google Scholar
  111. Schurr TG, Ballinger W, Gan YY, Hodge JA, Merriwether DA, Lawrence DN, Knowler WC, Weiss KM, Wallace DC (1990) Amerindian mitochondrial DNAs have rare Asian mutations at high frequencies, suggesting they derived from four primary maternal lineages. Am J Hum Genet 46:613–623PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Scott GR (1991) Continuity or replacement at the Uyak site, Kodiak Island, Alaska: a physical anthropological analysis of population relationships. University of Oregon Anthropological Papers 44, pp 1–56Google Scholar
  113. Scott GR (1973) Dental morphology: a genetic study of American White families and variation in living Southwest Indians. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, TempeGoogle Scholar
  114. Scott GR, Turner CG II (1988) Dental anthropology. Annu Rev Anthropol 17:99–126Google Scholar
  115. Scott GR, Turner CG II (1997) The anthropology of modern human teeth: dental morphology and its variation in recent human populations. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  116. Scott GR, Turner CG II (2006) Dentition. In: Ubelaker D (ed) Handbook of North American Indians. vol 3: Environment, origins, and population. Physical anthropology. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp 645–660Google Scholar
  117. Scott GR, Turner CG II (2008) The physical anthropological intermediacy problem of Na Dene/Greater Northwest Coast Indians. Alaska J Anthropol 6:57–68Google Scholar
  118. Scott GR, Yap Potter RH, Noss JF, Dahlberg AA, Dahlberg T (1983) The dental morphology of Pima Indians. Am J Phys Anthropol 61:13–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Scott GR, Street SR, Dahlberg AA (1988) The dental variation of Yuman speaking groups in an American Southwest context. In: Russell DF, Santoro JP, Sigogneau-Russell D (eds) Teeth Revisited, Mémoires du Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle C53. Brill Academic Publisher, pp 305–319Google Scholar
  120. Scott GR, Anta A, Schomberg R, de la Rua C (2013) Basque dental morphology and the “Eurodont” dental pattern. In: Scott GR, Irish JD (eds) Anthropological perspectives on tooth morphology: genetics, evolution, variation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 296–318Google Scholar
  121. Seielstad M, Yuldasheva NS, Underhill P, Oefner P, Shen P, Wells RS (2003) A novel Y-chromosome variant puts an upper limit on the timing of first entry into the Americas. Am J Hum Genet 73:700–705PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Shields GF, Hecker K, Voevoda MI, Reed JK (1992) Absence of the Asian-specific region V mitochondrial marker in native Beringians. Am J Hum Genet 50:758–765PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Shields GF, Schmiechen AM, Frazier BL, Redd A, Voevoda MI, Reed JK, Ward RH (1993) MtDNA sequences suggest a recent evolutionary divergence for Beringian and northern North American populations. Am J Hum Genet 53:549–562PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Silva WA Jr, Bonatto SL, Holanda AJ, Ribeiro-dos-Santos AK, Paixão BM, Goldman GH, Abe-Sandes K, Rodriguez-Delfin L, Barbosa M, Pacó-Larson ML, Petzl-Erler ML, Valente V, Santos SEB, Zago MA (2002) Mitochondrial genome diversity of Native Americans supports a single early entry of founder populations into America. Am J Hum Genet 71:187–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Spuhler JN (1979) Genetic distances, trees, and maps of North American Indians. In: Laughlin WS, Harper AB (eds) The first Americans: origins, affinities, and adaptations. Gustav Fischer, New York, pp 135–183Google Scholar
  126. Stanford DJ, Day JS (eds) (1992) Ice age hunters of the Rockies. University Press of Colorado, NiwotGoogle Scholar
  127. Starikovskaya YB, Sukernik RI, Schurr TG, Kogelnik AM, Wallace DC (1998) MtDNA diversity in Chukchi and Siberian Eskimos: implications for the genetic history of ancient Beringia and the peopling of the New World. Am J Hum Genet 63:1473–1491PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Steele DG (1989) Recently recovered Paleoindian skeletal remains from Texas and the Southwest. Am J Phys Anthropol 78:307Google Scholar
  129. Steele DG, Powell JF (1992) Peopling of the Americas: paleobiological evidence. Hum Biol 64:303–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Steele DG, Powell JF (1997) Biological affinities of the oldest recovered North Americans: the Spirit Cave and Pyramid Lakes data. Am J Phys Anthropol 24(Suppl):218Google Scholar
  131. Stojanowski CM, Johnson KM, Duncan WN (2013) Sinodonty and beyond: hemispheric, regional, and intracemetery approaches to studying dental morphological variation in the New World. In: Scott GR, Irish JD (eds) Anthropological perspectives on tooth morphology: evolution, genetics, variation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 408–452Google Scholar
  132. Stone AC, Stoneking M (1993) Ancient DNA from a pre-Columbian Amerindian population. Am J Phys Anthropol 92:463–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Sutter RC (2004) The prehistoric peopling of South America as inferred from epigenetic dental traits. Andean Past 7:183–217Google Scholar
  134. Szathmary EJE (1979) Blood groups of Siberians, Eskimos, and Subarctic and Northwest Coast Indians: the problem of origins and genetic relationships. In: Laughlin WS, Harper AB (eds) The first Americans: origins, affinities, and adaptations. Gustav Fischer, New York, pp 185–209Google Scholar
  135. Szathmary EJE (1981) Genetic markers in Siberian and northern North American populations. Yrbk Phys Anthropol 24:37–73Google Scholar
  136. Szathmary EJE (1993) Genetics of aboriginal North Americans. Evol Anthropol 1:202–220Google Scholar
  137. Szathmary EJE, Ossenberg NS (1978) Are the biological differences between North American Indians and Eskimos truly profound? Curr Anthropol 19:673–701Google Scholar
  138. Tamm E, Kivisild T, Reidla M, Metspalu M, Smith DG, Mulligan CJ, Bravi CM, Rickards O, Martinez-Labarga C, Khusnutkdinova EK, Federova SA, Golubenko MV, Stepanov VA, Gubina MA, Zhadanov SI, Ossipova LP, Damba L, Voevoda MI, Dipierri JE, Villems R, Malhi R (2007) Beringian standstill and spread of Native American founders. Plos One 2(9):e829Google Scholar
  139. Tarazona-Santos E, Santos FR (2002) The peopling of the Americas: a second major migration? Am J Hum Genet 70:1377–1380PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Torroni A, Schurr GG, Yang C-C, Szathmary EJE, Williams RC, Weiss KM, Wallace DC (1992) Native American mitochondrial DNA analysis indicates that the Amerind and the Nadene populations were founded by two independent migrations. Genetics 130:153–162PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Torroni A, Schurr TG, Cabell MF, Brown MD, Neel JV, Larsen M, Smith DG, Vullo CM, Wallace DC (1993) Asian affinities and continental radiation of the four founding Native American mtDNAs. Am J Hum Genet 53:563–590PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Torroni A, Neel JV, Barrantes R, Schurr TG, Wallace DC (1994) Mitochondrial DNA “clock” for the Amerinds and its implications for timing their entry into North America. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:1158–1162PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Turner CG II (1983) Sinodonty and Sundadonty: a dental anthropological view of Mongoloid microevolution, origin, and dispersal into the Pacific Basin, Siberia, and the Americas. In: Vasilievsky RS (ed) Late Pleistocene and early Holocene cultural connections of Asia and America. U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk, pp 72–76 [in Russian]Google Scholar
  144. Turner CG II (1985) The dental search for Native American origins. In: Kirk R, Szathmary E (eds) Out of Asia: peopling the Americas and the Pacific. Australian National University, Canberra, pp 31–78, Journal of Pacific HistoryGoogle Scholar
  145. Turner CG II (1986) Dentochronological separation estimates for Pacific rim populations. Science 232:1140–1142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Turner CG II (1987) Late Pleistocene and Holocene population history of East Asia based on dental variation. Am J Phys Anthropol 73:305–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Turner CG II (1990) The major features of Sundadonty and Sinodonty, including suggestions about East Asian microevolution, population history, and late Pleistocene relationships with Australian Aboriginals. Am J Phys Anthropol 82:295–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Turner CG II (1991) The dentition of Arctic peoples. Garland Publishing, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  149. Turner CG II (1992a) New World origins: new research from the Americas and the Soviet Union. In: Stanford DJ, Day JS (eds) Ice age hunters of the Rockies. University Press of Colorado, Niwot, pp 7–50Google Scholar
  150. Turner CG II (1992b) Microevolution of East Asian and European populations: a dental perspective. In: Akazawa T, Aoki K, Kimura T (eds) The evolution and dispersal of modern humans in Asia. Hokusen-Sha Pub. Co., Tokyo, pp 415–438Google Scholar
  151. Turner CG II (1992c) The dental bridge between Australia and Asia: following Macintosh into the East Asian hearth of humanity. Perspect Hum Biol 2/Archaeol Ocean 27:143–152Google Scholar
  152. Turner CG II (1993) Southwest Indians: prehistory through dentition. Natl Geogr Res Explor 9:32–53Google Scholar
  153. Turner CG II (2003) Three ounces of sea shells and one fish bone do not a coastal migration make. Am Antiq 68:391–395Google Scholar
  154. Turner CG II (2002) Teeth, needles, dogs, and Siberia: bioarchaeological evidence for the colonization of the New World. In: Jablonski NG (ed) The first Americans: the Pleistocene colonization of the New World. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences No. 27, San Francisco, pp 123–158Google Scholar
  155. Turner CG II (1990b) Upper Paleolithic Mal'ta child (Siberia). News from the Siberian Branch of the U. S.S.R. Academy of Sciences 2:70-71 [in Russian]Google Scholar
  156. Turner CG II, Nichol CR, Scott GR (1991) Scoring procedures for key morphological traits of the permanent dentition: the Arizona State University dental anthropology system. In: Kelley MA, Larsen CS (eds) Advances in dental anthropology. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 13–31Google Scholar
  157. Tyler DE (1998) Homo americanus: an original American species. Discovery Books, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  158. Wallace DC, Torroni A (1992) American Indian prehistory as written in the mitochondrial DNA: a review. Hum Biol 64:403–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Ward RH, Frazier BL, Dew-Jager K, Paabo S (1991) Extensive mitochondrial diversity within a single Amerindian tribe. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:8720–8724PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Ward RH, Redd A, Valencia D, Frazier B, Paabo S (1993) Genetic and linguistic differentiation in the Americas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:10663–10667PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Waters MR (1986) Sulphur Springs woman: an early human skeleton from southeastern Arizona. Am Antiq 51:361–365Google Scholar
  162. West FH (1981) The archaeology of Beringia. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  163. West FH (1990) Archaeology in the press: science misserved? Rev Archaeol 11:25–32Google Scholar
  164. West FH (1996) American beginnings: the prehistory and palaeoecology of Beringia. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  165. Willerslev (2013) Genetics as a means for understanding early peopling of the Americas. Paper presented at Paleoamerican Odyssey, Santa Fe NM, October 2013Google Scholar
  166. Williams RC, Steinberg AG, Gershowitz H, Bennett PH, Knowler WC, Pettitt DJ, Butler W, Baird R, Dowda-Rea L, Burch TA, Morse HG, Smith CG (1985) GM allotypes in native Americans: evidence for three distinct migrations across the Bering land bridge. Am J Phys Anthropol 66:1–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Workman WB (2001) Reflections on the utility of the coastal migration hypothesis in understanding the peopling of the New World. Paper presented at the Alaska Anthropological Association, Fairbanks, MarchGoogle Scholar
  168. Y Chromosome Consortium (2002) A nomenclature system for the tree of human Y-chromosomal binary haplogroups. Genome Res 12:339–348Google Scholar
  169. Yesner DR (2001) Human dispersal into interior Alaska: antecedent conditions, mode of colonization, and adaptations. Quat Sci Rev 20:315–327Google Scholar
  170. Yesner DR, Pearson G (2002) Microblades and migrations: ethnic and economic models in the peopling of the Americas. In: Elston G, Kuhn SL (eds) Thinking small: global perspectives on microlithization. Archeological papers of the American Anthropological Association No. 12, pp 133–161Google Scholar
  171. Young D, Patrick S, Steele DG (1987) An analysis of the Paleoindian double burial from Horn Shelter No. 2, in central Texas. Plains Anthropol 32:275–298Google Scholar
  172. Zoubov AA, Haldeyeva NI (1979) Ethnic odontology of the U.S.S.R. Nauka, Moscow, in RussianGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christy G. TurnerII
    • 1
  • Prof. G. Richard Scott
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Human Evolution and Social ChangeArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of NevadaRenoUSA

Personalised recommendations