Paleoenvironments and Hominin Evolution

  • Elisabeth S. Vrba
Living reference work entry


Environmental stimuli have influenced the evolution of hominins and other mammals at the levels of ontogeny, organismal adaptation, and speciation. The review refers to some agreement which has emerged – as well as to persistent debates – on the issue of environmental linkages to hominin adaptation. Current hypotheses which link physical change, adaptation, and speciation in general and in hominins in particular are discussed (including hypotheses on the role of ecological specialization and generalization, the coordinated stasis and variability selection hypotheses, habitat theory, and the turnover pulse hypothesis). Some persistent debates are revisited (such as on the current status of the savanna hypothesis and on whether or not there was mammalian species’ turnover in the Turkana Basin during the Plio-Pleistocene). The relation of hominin evolution to the recent finding of several turnover pulses coincident with global cooling trends in the 10 Ma to recent record of all African larger mammals is considered. One example of hypotheses which address issues of environmental stimuli of ontogenetic evolution is the heterochrony pulse hypothesis: the generative properties shared among lineages can result not only in coherence of morphological changes but also in a strongly nonrandom timing of heterochrony events, as diverse lineages respond in parallel by similar kinds of heterochrony to the same environmental changes. The discussion includes cases in hominins and other mammals of evolutionary increase in body size by prolongation of growth and attendant “shuffling” of body proportions including relative increase in brain volume, namely, encephalization.


Late Miocene Body Proportion Okavango Delta Allopatric Speciation Early Hominins 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abbate E, Sagri M (2012) Early to Middle Pleistocene Homo dispersals from Africa to Eurasia: geological, climatic and environmental constraints. Quat Int 267:3–19Google Scholar
  2. Aifa T, Feinberg H, Derder EM (2003) Magnetostratigraphic constraints on the duration of the marine communications interruption in the Western Mediterranean during the upper Messinian. Geodiversitas 25:617–631Google Scholar
  3. Allen JA (1877) The influence of physical conditions in the genesis of species. Radic Rev 1:108–140Google Scholar
  4. Andrews P, O’Brien EM (2000) Climate, vegetation, and predictable gradients in mammal species richness in southern African mammals. J Zool (Lond) 251:205–231Google Scholar
  5. Arnold SJ, Alberch P, Csanyi V, Dawkins RC, Emerson R, Fritzsche B, Horder TJ, Maynard-Smith J, Starck M, Vrba ES, Wagner GP, Wake DB (1989) How do complex organisms evolve? In: Wake DB, Roth G (eds) Complex organismal functions: integration and evolution in vertebrates. Wiley, Chichester, pp 403–433Google Scholar
  6. Asfaw P, White T, Lovejoy O, Latimer B, Simpson S, Suwa G (1999) Australopithecus garhi: a new species of early hominid from Ethiopia. Science 284:629–635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ashton KG, Tracy MC, de Queiroz A (2000) Is Bergmann’s rule valid for mammals? Am Nat 156:390–415Google Scholar
  8. Azanza B, Alberdi MT, Prado JL (2000) Large mammal turnover pulses correlated with latest Neogene glacial trends in the northwestern Mediterranean region. Geological Society Special Publication 181:161–170Google Scholar
  9. Baker PT (1988) Human adaptability. In: Harrison GA, Tanner JM, Pilbeam DR, Baker PT (eds) Human biology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 439–544Google Scholar
  10. Baker RR (1978) The evolutionary ecology of animal migration. Hadder and Stoughton, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Barnosky AD (1986) Big game extinction caused by Late Pleistocene climatic change: Irish Elk (Megaloceros giganteus) in Ireland. Quatern Res 25:128–135Google Scholar
  12. Barnosky AD (2001) Distinguishing the effects of the Red Queen and Court Jester on Miocene mammal evolution in the northern Rocky Mountains. J Vertebr Paleontol 21:162–185Google Scholar
  13. Bedaso ZK, Wynn JG, Alemseged Z, Geraads D (2013) Dietary and paleoenvironmental reconstruction using stable isotopes of herbivore tooth enamel from middle Pliocene Dikika, Ethiopia: implication for Australopithecus afarensis habitat and food resources. J Hum Evol 64:21–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Behrensmeyer AK, Todd NE, Potts R, McBrinn GE (1997) Late Pliocene faunal turnover in the Turkana Basin, Kenya and Ethiopia. Science 278:637–640Google Scholar
  15. Berger LR, de Ruiter DJ, Churchill SE, Schmid P, Carlson KJ, Dirks PHGM, Kibii JM (2010) Australopithecus sediba: a new species of Homo-like australopith from South Africa. Science 328:195–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bergmann C (1846) Über die Verhältnisse der Wärmeökonomie der Thiere zu ihrer Grösse. Göttinger Studien 31:595–708Google Scholar
  17. Bernor RL, Lipscomb D (1995) A consideration of Old World hipparionine horse phylogeny and global abiotic processes. In: Vrba ES, Denton GH, Partridge TC, Burckle LH (eds) Paleoclimate and evolution with emphasis on human origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 164–167Google Scholar
  18. Bobe R (2011) Fossil mammals and paleoenvironments in the Omo-Turkana Basin. Evol Anthropol 20:254–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bobe R, Behrensmeyer AK (2004) The expansion of grassland ecosystems in Africa in relation to mammalian evolution and the origin of the genus Homo. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol Special Issue 207:399–420Google Scholar
  20. Bonnefille R (2010) Cenozoic vegetation, climate changes and hominid evolution in tropical Africa. Global Planet Change 72:390–411Google Scholar
  21. Bonnefille R, Potts R, Chalie F, Jolly D, Peyron O (2004) High-resolution vegetation and climate change associated with Pliocene Australopithecus afarensis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:12125–12129Google Scholar
  22. Brain CK (1981a) The evolution of man in Africa: was it a consequence of Cainozoic cooling? Annex Transv Geol Soc S Afr 84:1–19Google Scholar
  23. Brain CK (1981b) The hunters or the hunted? An introduction to African cave taphonomy. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  24. Brain CK (2001) Do we owe our intelligence to a predatory past? Seventieth James McArthur lecture on the evolution of the human brain. American Museum of Natural History, New York, pp 1–32Google Scholar
  25. Brett CE, Baird GC (1995) Coordinated stasis and evolutionary ecology of Silurian to Middle Devonian faunas in the Appalachian Basin. In: Erwin DH, Anstey RL (eds) New approaches to speciation in the fossil record. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 285–315Google Scholar
  26. Brown FH (1995) The potential of the Turkana Basin for paleoclimatic reconstruction in East Africa. In: Vrba ES, Denton GH, Partridge TC, Burckle LH (eds) Paleoclimate and evolution with emphasis on human origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 319–330Google Scholar
  27. Brown FH, Feibel CS (1991) Stratigraphy, depositional environments, and palaeogeography of the Koobi Fora Formation. In: Harris JM (ed) Koobi Fora research project. The fossil ungulates: geology, fossil artiodactyls, and palaeoenvironments, vol 3. Clarendon, Oxford, pp 1–30Google Scholar
  28. Brown F, Harris J, Leakey R, Walker A (1985) Early Homo erectus skeleton from West Lake Turkana, Kenya. Nature 316:788–792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Brunet M, Guy F, Pilbeam D, Mackaye HT, Likius A, Ahounta D, Beauvilain A, Blondel C, Bocherens H, Boisserie JR, De Bonis L, Coppens Y, Dejax J, Denys C, Duringer P, Eisenmann VR, Fanone G, Fronty P, Geraads D, Lehmann T, Lihoreau F, Louchart A, Mahamat A, Merceron G, Mouchelin G, Otero O, Campomanes PP, De Leon MP, Rage JC, Sapanet M, Schuster M, Sudre J, Tassy P, Valentin X, Vignaud P, Viriot L, Zazze A, Zellikefer C (2002) A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa. Nature 418:801Google Scholar
  30. Brunet M, Guy F, Boisserie JR, Djimdoumalbaye A, Lehmann T, Lihoreau F, Louchart A, Schuster M, Tafforeau P, Likius A, Mackaye HT, Blondel C, Bocherens H, De Bonis L, Coppens Y, Denis C, Duringer P, Eisenmann V, Flisch A, Geraads D, Lopez-Martinez N, Otero O, Campomanes PP, Pilbeam D, de Leon MP, Vignaud P, Viriot L, Zollikofer C (2004) ‘Toumai’, Late Miocene of Chad, the new earliest member of the human branch. Comptes Rendus Palevol 3:277–285Google Scholar
  31. Brunet M, Guy F, Pilbeam D, Lieberman DE, Likius A, Mackaye HT, de Leon MSP, Zollikofer CPE, Vignaud P (2005) New material of the earliest hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad. Nature 434:752–755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Burckle LH (1995) Current issues in paleoclimatology. In: Vrba ES, Denton GH, Partridge TC, Burckle LH (eds) Paleoclimate and evolution with emphasis on human origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 3–7Google Scholar
  33. Burke K (1996) The African plate. S Afr J Geol 99:341–409Google Scholar
  34. Cadman A, Rayner RJR (1989) Climatic change and the appearance of Australopithecus africanus in the Makapansgat sediments. J Hum Evol 18:107–113Google Scholar
  35. Carson HL, Hardy DE, Spieth HT, Stone WS (1970) The evolutionary biology of the Hawaiian Drosophilidae. In: Hecht MK, Steere WC (eds) Essays in evolution and genetics in honor of Theodosius Dobzhansky. Appleton Century Crofts, New York, pp 437–543Google Scholar
  36. Cerling TE, Harris JM, MacFadden BJ, Leakey MG, Quade J, Eisenmann V, Ehleringer JR (1997) Global vegetation change through the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Nature 389:153Google Scholar
  37. Cerling TE, Levin NE, Quade J, Wynn JG, Fox DL, Kingston JD, Klein RG, Brown FH (2010) Comment on the paleoenvironment of Ardipithecus ramidus. Science 328:1105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Cerling TE, Wynn JG, Andanje SA, Bird MI, Korir DK, Levin NE, Mace W, Macharia AN, Quade J, Remien CH (2011) Woody cover and hominin environments in the past 6 million years. Nature 476:51–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Cerling TE, Manthi FK, Mbua EN et al (2013) Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:10501–10506PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Clarke RJ, Tobias PV (1995) Sterkfontein member 2 foot bones of the oldest South African hominid. Science 269:521–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Clemens SC, Murray DW, Prell WL (1996) Nonstationary phase of the Plio-Pleistocene Asian monsoon. Science 274:943–948, the growth of NH ice sheets over the past 3.5 million years weakens the Asian summer monsoon and increases the aridity of subtropical Asia and eastern AfricaPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cohen AS, Stone JR, Beuning KRM, Park LE, Reinthal PN, Dettmar D, Scholz CA, Johnsor TC, King JW, Talbot MR, Brown ET, Ivory SJ (2007) Ecological consequences of early Late Pleistocene megadroughts in tropical Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104:16422–16427Google Scholar
  43. Cole JM, Goldstein SL, deMenocal PB, Hemming SR, Grousset FE (2009) Contrasting compositions of Saharan dust in the eastern Atlantic Ocean during the last deglaciation and African Humid Period. Earth Planet Sci Lett 278:257–266Google Scholar
  44. Cole JM, Goldstein SL, deMenocal PB, Hemming SR, Grousset FE (2012) Contrasting compositions of Saharan dust in the eastern Atlantic Ocean during the last deglaciation and African Humid Period. Earth Planet Sci Lett 355:352–352Google Scholar
  45. Coppens Y (1975) Evolution des Hominides et de leur environnement au cours du Plio-Pleistocene dans la basse vallee de l'Omo en Ethiopie. Comptes Rendus Acad Sc Paris Serie D 281:1693–1696Google Scholar
  46. Coppens Y (1988–1989) Hominid evolution and the evolution of the environment. Ossa 14:157–162Google Scholar
  47. Count EW (1947) Brain and body weight in man. Ann N Y Acad Sci 46:993–1122Google Scholar
  48. Dart R (1925) Australopithecus africanus: the man-ape of South Africa. Nature 115:195–199Google Scholar
  49. Darwin C (1859) On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. John Murray, LondonGoogle Scholar
  50. Davis SJ (1981) The effects of temperature change and domestication on the body size of Late Pleistocene to Holocene mammals of Israel. Paleobiology 7:101–114Google Scholar
  51. de Heinzelin J, Clark JD, White T, Hart W, Renne P, WoldeGabriel G, Beyene Y, Vrba ES (1999) Environment and behavior of 2.5-million-year-old Bouri hominids. Science 284:625–629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. DeGusta D, Vrba E (2003) A method for inferring paleohabitats from the functional morphology of bovid astragali. J Archaeol Sci 30:1009–1022Google Scholar
  53. deMenocal PB (2004) African climate change and faunal evolution during the Plio-Pleistocene. Earth Planet Sci Lett 220:3–24Google Scholar
  54. DeMenocal PB (2008) Africa on the edge. Nat Geosci 1:650–651Google Scholar
  55. DeMenocal PB (2011) Climate and human evolution. Science 331:540–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. DeMenocal P, Bloemendal J (1995) Plio-Pleistocene subtropical African climate variability and the paleoenvironment of hominid evolution: a combined data-model approach. In: Vrba ES, Denton GH, Partridge TC, Burckle LH (eds) Paleoclimate and evolution with emphasis on human origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 262–288Google Scholar
  57. Denys C, Chorowicz J, Tiercelin JJ (1987) Tectonic and environmental control on rodent diversity in the Plio-Pleistocene sediments of the African Rift System. In: Frostick LE, Renault RW, Reid I, Tiercelin JJ (eds) Sedimentation in the African rifts, vol 25, Geological Society Special Papers Publication. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London, pp 363–372Google Scholar
  58. Dirks PHGM, Kibii JM, Kuhn BF, Steininger C, Churchill SE, Kramers JD, Pickering R, Farber DL, Meriaux AS, Herries AIR, King GCP, Berger LR (2010) Geological setting and age of Australopithecus sediba from southern Africa. Science 328:205–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Donges JF, Donner RV, Trauth MH, Marwan N, Schellnhuber HJ, Kurths J (2011) Nonlinear detection of paleoclimate-variability transitions possibly related to human evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:20422–20427PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Dupont LM, Leroy SA (1995) Steps towards drier climatic conditions in North-Western Africa during the Upper Pliocene. In: Vrba ES, Denton GH, Partridge TC, Burckle LH (eds) Paleoclimate and evolution with emphasis on human origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 289–298Google Scholar
  61. Ebinger CJ (1989) Tectonic development of the western branch of the East African Rift System. Bull Geol Soc A 101:885–903Google Scholar
  62. Eldredge N (1979) Alternative approaches to evolutionary theory. Bull Carnegie Natur Hist 13:7–19Google Scholar
  63. Eldredge N, Gould SJ (1972) Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism. In: Schopf TJM (ed) Models in paleobiology. WH Freeman, San Francisco, pp 82–115Google Scholar
  64. Falk D (1980) Hominid brain evolution: the approach from paleoneurology. Yearb Phys Anthropol 23:93–108Google Scholar
  65. Falkner F, Tanner JM (eds) (1986) Human growth: a comprehensive treatise, vol 1 and 2. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  66. Feibel CS (1997) Debating the environmental factors in hominid evolution. GSA Today 7:1–7Google Scholar
  67. Foley RA (1994) Speciation, extinction and climatic change in hominid evolution. J Hum Evol 26:275–289Google Scholar
  68. Frostick LE, Renaut RW, Reid I, Tiercelin JJ (eds) (1986) Sedimentation in the African Rift, vol 25, Geological Society Special Papers Publication. Blackwell Scientific Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  69. Futuyma DJ (1979) Evolutionary biology. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  70. Gabow SL (1977) Population structure and the rate of hominid brain evolution. J Hum Evol 6:643–665Google Scholar
  71. Garcia F, Conesa G, Munch P, Cornee JJ, Saint Martin JP, Andre JP (2004) Evolution of Melilla-Nador basin (NE Morocco) littoral environments during late Messinian between 6.0 and 5.77 Ma. Geobios 37:23–36Google Scholar
  72. Gould SJ (1974) The evolutionary significance of “bizarre” structures: antler size and skull size in the ‘Irish Elk’, Megaloceras gigantans. J Evol 28:191–220Google Scholar
  73. Gould SJ (1977) Ontogeny and phylogeny. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  74. Graham RW, Lundelius EL (1984) Coevolutionary disequilibrium and Pleistocene extinctions. In: Martin PS, Klein RG (eds) Quaternary extinctions, a prehistoric revolution. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp 223–249Google Scholar
  75. Grine FE (1981) Trophic differences between gracile and robust australopithecines. S Afr J Sci 77:203–230Google Scholar
  76. Grine FE (1986) Dental evidence for dietary differences in Australopithecus and Paranthropus. J Hum Evol 15:783–822Google Scholar
  77. Gulick JT (1872) On the variation of species as related to their geographical distribution, illustrated by the Achatinellidae. J Nat 6:222–224Google Scholar
  78. Guthrie RD (1984) Alaskan megabucks, megabulls, and megarams: the issue of Pleistocene gigantism. Bull Carnegie Mus Nat Hist 8:482–510Google Scholar
  79. Hafner JC, Hafner MS (1988) Heterochrony in rodents. In: McKinney ML (ed) Heterochrony in evolution: a multidisciplinary approach. Plenum Press, New York, pp 217–235Google Scholar
  80. Haile-Selassie Y (2001) Late Miocene hominids from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature 412:178–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Haile-Selassie Y, Gen S, White T (2009) Hominidae. In: Haile-Selassie Y, WoldeGabriel G (eds) Ardipithecus kadabba: Late Miocene evidence from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia, vol 2, The Middle Awash. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 159–236Google Scholar
  82. Haile-Selassie Y, Saylor BZ, Deino A, Levin NE, Alene M, Latimer BM (2012) A new hominin foot from Ethiopia shows multiple Pliocene bipedal adaptations. Nature 483:565–569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hall BK (2001) Organic selection: proximate environmental effects on the evolution of morphology and behaviour. J Biol Philos 16(2):215–237Google Scholar
  84. Haq BU, Worsley TR, Burckle LH, Douglas RG, Keigwin LD, Opdyke ND, Savin SM, Sommer MA, Vincent E, Woodruff F (1980) Late Miocene marine carbon-isotopic shift and synchroneity of some phytoplanktonic biostratigraphic events. Geology 8:427–431Google Scholar
  85. Haq BU, Hardenbol J, Vail PR (1987) Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic. Science 235:1156–1167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Harcourt-Smith WEH, Aiello LC (2004) Fossils, feet and the evolution of human bipedal locomotion. J Anat 204:403–416PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hare PE (1980) Organic geochemistry of bone and its relation to the survival of bone in the natural environment. In: Hill AP, Behrensmeyer AK (eds) Fossils in the making. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 208–219Google Scholar
  88. Harris JM, Brown FH, Leakey MG (1988) Stratigraphy and Paleontology of Pliocene and Pleistocene localities west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. Contrib Sci Nat Hist Mus Los Angel County 399:1–128Google Scholar
  89. Hatley T, Kappelman J (1980) Bears, pigs and Plio-Pleistocene hominids: a case for the exploitation of belowground food resources. Hum Ecol 8:371–387Google Scholar
  90. Haug GH, Tiedemann R, Zahn R, Ravelo AC (2001) Role of Panama uplift on oceanic freshwater balance. Geology 29:207–210Google Scholar
  91. Hays JD, Imbrie J, Shackelton NJ (1976) Variations in the earth’s orbit: pacemaker of the ice ages. Science 194:1121–1132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Heintz A, Garutt VE (1965) Determination of the absolute age of the fossil remains of mammoth and wooly rhinoceros from the permafrost in Siberia by the help of radiocarbon (C14). Nor Geol Tidsskr 45:73–79Google Scholar
  93. Hernández Fernández M, Vrba ES (2005) Rapoport effect and biomic specialization in African mammals: revisiting the climatic variability hypothesis. J Biogeogr 32:903–918Google Scholar
  94. Hill A (1995) Faunal and environmental change in the Neogene of East Africa: evidence from the Tugen Hills sequence, Baringo District, Kenya. In: Vrba ES, Denton GH, Partridge TC, Burckle LH (eds) Paleoclimate and evolution with emphasis on human origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 178–193Google Scholar
  95. Hodell DA, Warnke DA (1991) Climatic evolution of the Southern-Ocean during the Pliocene Epoch from 4.8 million to 2.6 million years ago. Quat Sci Rev 10(2–3):205–214Google Scholar
  96. Hodell DA, Benson RH, Kent DV, Boersma A, Rakic-el Bied K (1994) Magnetostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and stable isotope stratigraphy of an Upper Miocene drill core from the Salé Briqueterie (northwestern Morocco): a high resolution chronology for the Messinian Stage. Paleoceanography 9:835–855Google Scholar
  97. Hoffman A (1989) Arguments on evolution. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  98. Hofmann RR (1973) The Ruminant Stomach. East African Monographs in Biology, vol 2. East African Literature Bureau, Nairobi, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  99. Holloway RL (1970) New endocranial values for the australopithecines. Nature 227:199–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Holloway RL (1972) New australopithecine endocast SK 1585, from Swartkrans, South Africa. Am J Phys Anthropol 37:173–186Google Scholar
  101. Holloway RL (1978) Problems of brain endocast interpretation and African hominid evolution. In: Jolly CJ (ed) Early hominids of Africa. Duckworth, London, pp 217–235Google Scholar
  102. Holloway RL, Broadfield DC, Yuan MS (2003) Morphology and histology of chimpanzee primary visual striate cortex indicate that brain reorganization predated brain expansion in early Hominid evolution. Anat Rec A: Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol 273A:594–602Google Scholar
  103. Holt A, Cheek D, Mellits E, Hill D (1975) Brain size and the relation of the primate to the nonprimate. In: Cheek D (ed) Foetal and postnatal cellular growth: hormones and nutrition. Wiley, New York, pp 23–44Google Scholar
  104. Hsu KJ, Montadert L, Bernoulli D, Cita MB, Erickson A, Garrison RE, Kidd RB, Mèlierés F, Müller C, Wright R (1977) History of the Mediterranean salinity crisis. Nature 267:399–403Google Scholar
  105. Jolly CJ (1970) The seed eaters: a new model of hominid differentiation based on baboon analogy. Man 5:5–26Google Scholar
  106. Kennett J (1995) A review of polar climatic evolution during the Neogene based on the marine sediment record. In: Vrba ES, Denton GH, Partridge TC, Burckle LH (eds) Paleoclimate and evolution with emphasis on human origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 49–64Google Scholar
  107. Kimbel WH (1991) Species, species concepts and hominid evolution. J Hum Evol 20:355–371Google Scholar
  108. Kimbel WH (1995) Hominid speciation and Pliocene climatic change. In: Vrba E, Denton GH, Partridge TC, Burckle LH (eds) Paleoclimate and evolution with emphasis on human origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 426–437Google Scholar
  109. Kimbel WH, Johanson DC, Rak Y (1994) The first skull and other new discoveries of Australopithecus afarensis at Hadar, Ethiopia. Nature 368:449–451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Kimbel WH, Lockwood CA, Ward CV, Leakey MG, Rak Y, Johanson DC (2006) Australopithecus anamensis ancestral to A. afarensis? A case of anagenesis in the hominin fossil record. J Hum Evol 51:134–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Kingston JD, Harrison T (2006) Isotopic dietary reconstructions of Pliocene herbivores at Laetoli: implications for early hominin paleoecology. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 243:272–306Google Scholar
  112. Kingston JD, Marino BD, Hill A (1994) Isotopic evidence for Neogene hominid paleoenvironments in the Kenya Rift Valley. Science 264:955–959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Kitchell JA, Clark DL, Gombos AM (1986) The selectivity of mass extinction: causal dependency between life history and survivorship. Palios 1:504–511Google Scholar
  114. Klein RG, Edgar B (2002) The dawn of human culture. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  115. Koops J (1986) Multiphasic growth curve analysis. Growth 50:169–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Kurten B (1959) On the bears of the Holsteinian Interglacial. Stockh Contrib Geol 2:73–102Google Scholar
  117. Leakey MD (1971) Olduvai Gorge volume 3: excavations in beds 1 and 2 1960–1963. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  118. Leakey MG, Harris JM (eds) (2003) Lothagam, the dawn of humanity in eastern Africa. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  119. Leakey MD, Hay RL (1979) Pliocene footprints in the Laetoli Beds at Laetoli, Northern Tanzania. Nature 278:317–323Google Scholar
  120. Leakey MG, Feibel C, McDougall I, Ward C, Walker A (1995) New four-million-year-old hominid species from Kanapoi and Allia Bay, Kenya. Nature 376:565–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Leakey MG, Feibel CS, Bernor RL, Harris JM, Cerling TE, Stewart KM, Storrs GW, Walker A, Werdelin L, Winkler AJ (1996) Lothagam: a record of faunal change in the late Miocene of East Africa. J Vertebr Paleontol 16:556–570Google Scholar
  122. Lebatard AE, Bourles DL, Duringer P, Jolivet M, Braucher R, Carcaillet J, Schuster M, Arnaud N, Monie P, Lihoreau F, Likius A, Mackaye HT, Vignaud P, Brunet M (2008) Cosmogenic nuclide dating of Sahelanthropus tchadensis and Australopithecus bahrelghazali: Mio-Pliocene hominids from Chad. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:3226–3231PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Lee-Thorp JA, Sponheimer M, Passey BH, de Ruiter DJ, Cerling TE (2010) Stable isotopes in fossil hominin tooth enamel suggest a fundamental dietary shift in the Pliocene. Phil Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci 365:3389–3396Google Scholar
  124. Levin NE, Simpson SW, Quade J, Cerling TE (2008) Herbivore enamel carbon isotopic composition and the environmental context of Ardipithecus at Gona, Ethiopia. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 446:215–234Google Scholar
  125. Lieberman BS (1999) Turnover pulse in trilobites during the Acadian orogeny. Virginia M Mus Nat Hist Spec Publ 7:99–108Google Scholar
  126. Louchart A, Wesselman H, Bumenschine RJ, Hlusko LJ, Njau JK, Jackson K, Black MT, Asnake M, White TD (2009) Taphonomic, avian, and small-vertebrate indicators of Ardipithecus ramidus habitat. Science 326:66e1–66e4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Maier-Reimer E, Mikolajewicz U, Crowley T (1990) Ocean general circulation model sensitivity experiment with an open Central American isthmus. Paleoceanography 5:349–366Google Scholar
  128. Maloyi GMO (ed) (1972) Comparative physiology of desert animals. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  129. Marlow JR, Lange CB, Wefer G, Rosell-Mele A (2000) Upwelling intensification as part of the Pliocene-Pleistocene climate transition. Science 290:2288–2291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Maynard Smith J (1987) How to model evolution. In: Dupre J (ed) The latest on the best, A Bradford Book. The MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 119–131Google Scholar
  131. Mayr E (1942) Systematics and the origin of species. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  132. Mayr E (1963) Animal species and evolution. Harvard University Press, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  133. McHenry HM (1982) The pattern of human evolution: studies on bipedalism, mastication, and encephalization. Ann Rev Anthropol 11:151–173Google Scholar
  134. McKee JK (1993) Formation and geomorphology of caves in calcareous tufas and implications for the study of the Taung fossil deposits. Trans R Soc S Afr 48:307–322Google Scholar
  135. Mein P, Pickford M (2006) Late miocene micromammals from the Lukeino formation (6.1 to 5.8 ma), Kenya. Bull Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 751:183–223Google Scholar
  136. Meiri S, Dayan T (2003) On the validity of Bergmann’s rule. J Biogeogr 30:331–351Google Scholar
  137. Miller KG, Kominz MA, Browning JV, Wright JD, Mountain GS, Katz ME, Sugarman PJ, Cramer BS, Christie-Blick N, Pekar SF (2005) The phanerozoic record of global sea-level change. Science 310:1293–1298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Nakamishi M, Kato E, Kojima Y, Itoigawa N (1998) Carrying and washing of grass roots by free-ranging Japanese macaques at Katsuyama. Folia Primatologia 69:35–40Google Scholar
  139. Niemitz C (2000) A theory on the evolution of the habitual orthograde human bipedalism. The Amphibische Generalistentheorie. Anthropol Anz 60:3–66Google Scholar
  140. Oboussier H (1979) Evolution of the brain and phylogenetic development of African Bovidae. S Afr J Zool 14:119–124Google Scholar
  141. Owen-Smith N (2013) Contrasts in the large herbivore faunas of the southern continents in the late Pleistocene and the ecological implications for human origins. J Biogeogr 40:1215–1224Google Scholar
  142. Partridge TC, Maud RR (1987) Geomorphic evolution of southern Africa since the Mesozoic. S Afr J Geol 90:179–208Google Scholar
  143. Partridge TC, Granger DE, Caffee MW, Clarke RJ (2003) Lower Pliocene hominid remains from Sterkfontein. Science 300:607–612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Paterson L (1976) An introduction to the ecology and zoo-geography of the Okavango Delta. In: Youngman F (ed) Proceedings of the symposium on the Okavango Delta and its future utilization. Okavango Wildlife Society, Johannesburg, pp 55–66Google Scholar
  145. Paterson HEH (1978) More evidence against speciation by reinforcement. S Afr J Sci 74:369–371Google Scholar
  146. Paterson HEH (1982) Perspective on speciation by reinforcement. S Afr J Sci 78:53–57Google Scholar
  147. Pickering R, Dirks PHGM, Jinnah Z, de Ruiter DJ, Churchill SE, Herries AIR, Woodhead JD, Hellstrom JC, Berger LR (2011) Australopithecus sediba at 1.977 Ma and implications for the origins of the genus Homo. Science 333:1421–1423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Pickford M (1991) What caused the first steps towards the evolution of walkie-talkie primates? Origine(s) de la bipédie chez les hominidés (Cahiers de Paléoanthropologie). Editions du CNRS, ParisGoogle Scholar
  149. Pickford M, Senut B, Gommery D, Treil J (2002) Bipedalism in Orrorin tugenensis revealed by its femora. Comptes Rendus Palevol 1:191–203Google Scholar
  150. Potts R (1998a) Variability selection in hominid evolution. Evol Anthropol 7:81–96Google Scholar
  151. Potts R (1998b) Environmental hypotheses of hominin evolution. Am J Phys Anthropol 41:93–136Google Scholar
  152. Potts R (2012) Evolution and environmental change in early human prehistory. Annu Rev Anthropol 41:151–167Google Scholar
  153. Preuschoft H (2004) Mechanisms for 6the acquisition of habitual bipedality: are there biomechanical reasons for the acquisition of upright posture? J Anat 204:363–384PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Raia P, Piras P, Kotsakis T (2005) Turnover pulse or Red Queen? Evidence from the large mammal communities during the Plio-Pleistocene of Italy. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 221:293–312Google Scholar
  155. Ramberg L, Hancock P, Lindholm M, Meyer, Ringrose S, Sliva J, Van As J, VanderPost C (2006) Species diversity of the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Aquat Sci 68:310–337Google Scholar
  156. Ratnam J, Bond WJ, Fensham RJ, Hoffmann WA, Archibald S, Lehmann CER, Anderson MT (2011) When is a ‘forest’ a savanna, and why does it matter? Glob Ecol Biogeogr 20:653–660Google Scholar
  157. Rayner RJ, Moon BP, Masters JC (1993) The Makapansgat australopithecine environment. J Hum Evol 24:219–231Google Scholar
  158. Reed KE (1997) Early hominid evolution and ecological change through the African Plio-Pleistocene. J Hum Evol 32:289–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Robinson JT (1963) Adaptive radiation in the australopithecines and the origin of man. In: Howell FC, Bourlière F (eds) African ecology and human evolution. Publs Anthrop Viking Fund 36:385–416Google Scholar
  160. Rossignol-Strick M (1985) Mediterranean quaternary sapropels, an immediate response of the African monsoon to variation of insolation. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 49:237–263Google Scholar
  161. Rossignol-Strick M, Paterne M, Bassinot FC, Emeis K-C, De Lange GJ (1998) An unusual mid-Pleistocene monsoon period over Africa and Asia. Nature 392:269–272Google Scholar
  162. Ruddiman WF, Raymo ME (1988) Northern hemisphere climate regimes during the last 3 million years: possible tectonic connections. Phil Trans Roy Soc London B Series 318:411–430Google Scholar
  163. Ruddiman WF, Raymo M, McIntyre A (1986) Matuyama 41,000-year cycles: North Atlantic Ocean and northern hemisphere ice sheets. Earth Planet Sci Lett 80:117–129Google Scholar
  164. Ruvolo M (1997) Genetic diversity in hominoid primates. Ann Rev Anthropol 26:215–540Google Scholar
  165. Sawada Y, Pickford M, Senut B, Itaya T, Hyodo M, Miura T, Kashine C (2002) The age of Orrorin tugenensis, an early hominid from the Tugen Hills, Kenya. Comptes Rendus Palevol 1:293–303Google Scholar
  166. Schefuss E, Schouten S, Jansen JHF, Sinninghe Damste JS (2003) African vegetation controlled by tropical sea surface temperatures in the mid-Pleistocene period. Nature 422:418–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Scholz CH, Koczynski TA, Hutchins DG (1976) Evidence of incipient rifting in Southern Africa. Geophys J R Astr Soc 44:135–144Google Scholar
  168. Scholz CA, Johnson TC, Cohen AS, King JW, Peck JA, Overpeck JT, Talbot MR (2007) East African megadroughts between 135 and 75 thousand years ago and bearing on early-modern human origins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:16416–16421PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Semaw S, Renne P, Harris JWK, Feibel CS, Bernor RL, Fesseha N, Mowbray K (1997) 2.5-million-year-old stone tools from Gona, Ethiopia. Nature 385:333–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Semaw S, Simpson SW, Quade J, Renne PR, Butler RF, McIntosh WC, Levin N (2005) Early Pliocene hominids from Gona, Ethiopia. Nature 433:301–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Senut B (2006) Bipedalism and climate. Comptes Rendus Palevol 5:89–98Google Scholar
  172. Senut B, Pickford M, Gommery D, Mein P, Cheboi K, Coppens Y (2001) First hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino Formation, Kenya). Comptes Rendus Acad Sc Paris Serie II Fascicule A, Sciences de la terre et des Planètes 332:137–144Google Scholar
  173. Shackleton NJ (1995) New data on the evolution of Pliocene climatic variability. In: Vrba ES, Denton GH, Partridge TC, Burckle LH (eds) Paleoclimate and evolution with emphasis on human origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 242–248Google Scholar
  174. Shultz S, Nelson E, Dunbar RIM (2012) Hominin cognitive evolution: identifying patterns and processes in the fossil and archaeological record. R Soc Phil Trans Biol Sci 367:2130–2140Google Scholar
  175. Signor PW, Lipps JH (1982) Sampling bias, gradual extinction patterns and catastrophes in the fossil record. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 190:291–296Google Scholar
  176. Simpson GG (1953) The major features of evolution. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  177. Sinclair ARE (1977) The African Buffalo. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  178. Sponheimer M, Alemseged Z, Cerling TE, Grine FE, Kimbel WH, Leakey MG, Lee-Thorp JA (2013) Isotopic evidence of early hominin diets. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:10513–10518PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  179. Stanley SM (1985) Climatic cooling and Plio-Pleistocene mass extinction of molluscs around margins of the Atlantic. S Afr J Sci 81:266Google Scholar
  180. Stebbins L (1950) Variation and evolution in plants. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  181. Stevens GC (1989) The latitudinal gradient in geographical range: how so many species coexist in the tropics. Am Nat 133:240–256Google Scholar
  182. Stringer CB (1995) The evolution and distribution of later Pleistocene human populations. In: Vrba ES, Denton GH, Partridge TC, Burckle LH (eds) Paleoclimate and evolution with emphasis on human origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 524–531Google Scholar
  183. Summerfield MA (1996) Tectonics, geology, and long-term landscape development. In: Adams WM, Goudie AS, Orme AR (eds) The physical geography of Africa. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  184. Swisher CC, Curtis GH, Jacob T, Getty AG, Suprijo A (1994) Age of the earliest known hominids in Java, Indonesia. Science 263:1118–1121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Tattersall I (1997a) Paleoanthropology and evolutionary theory. In: Ember CR, Ember M, Peregrine PN (eds) Research frontiers in anthropology, vol 3. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, pp 325–342Google Scholar
  186. Tattersall I (1997b) Out of Africa again and again? Sci Am 276:46–53Google Scholar
  187. Tattersall I (1999) Rethinking human evolution. Scientific American January:56–62Google Scholar
  188. Tattersall I (2000) Once we were not alone. Archaeology July/August:22–25Google Scholar
  189. van Dam J, Aziz HA, Sierra MAA, Hilgen FJ, Ostende LWVDH, Lourens LJ, Mein P (2006) Long-period astronomical forcing of mammal turnover. Nature 443:687–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. van der Merwe NJ, Masao FT, Bamford MK (2008) Isotopic evidence for contrasting diets of early hominins Homo habilis and Australopithecus boisei of Tanzania. S Afr J Sci 104:153–155Google Scholar
  191. Van Valen L (1973) A new evolutionary law. J Evol Theory 1:1–30Google Scholar
  192. Verhaegen M, Puech PF, Munro S (2002) Aquarboreal ancestors? Trends Ecol Evol 17:212–217Google Scholar
  193. Vrba ES (1974) Chronological and ecological implications of the fossil Bovidae at the Sterkfontein Australopithecine Site. Nature 256:19–23Google Scholar
  194. Vrba ES (1975) Some evidence of chronology and palaeoecology of Sterkfontein, Swartkrans and Kromdraai from the fossil Bovidae. Nature 254:301–304Google Scholar
  195. Vrba ES (1980) Evolution, species and fossils: how does life evolve? S Afr J Sci 76:61–84Google Scholar
  196. Vrba ES (1985a) Ecological and adaptive changes associated with early hominid evolution. In: Delson E (ed) Ancestors: the hard evidence. Alan R Liss, New York, pp 63–71Google Scholar
  197. Vrba ES (1985b) Environment and evolution: alternative causes of the temporal distribution of evolutionary events. S Afr J Sci 81:229–236Google Scholar
  198. Vrba ES (1987a) Ecology in relation to speciation rates: some case histories of Miocene_Recent mammal clades. Evol Ecol 1:283–300Google Scholar
  199. Vrba ES (1987b) A revision of the Bovini (Bovidae) and a preliminary revised checklist of Bovidae from Makapansgat. Palaeontol Afr 26:33–46Google Scholar
  200. Vrba ES (1988) Late Pliocene climatic events and hominid evolution. In: Grine FE (ed) The evolutionary history of the Robust Australopithecines. Aldine Publishing Company, New York, pp 405–426Google Scholar
  201. Vrba ES (1989a) The environmental context of the evolution of early hominids and their culture. In: Bonnichsen R, Sorg MH (eds) Bone modification. Publication of the Center for the Study of the First Americans, Orono, pp 27–42Google Scholar
  202. Vrba ES (1989b) Levels of selection and sorting, with special reference to the species level. Oxf Surv Evol Biol 6:111–168Google Scholar
  203. Vrba ES (1992) Mammals as a key to evolutionary theory. J Mammal 73:1–28Google Scholar
  204. Vrba ES (1995a) Species as habitat specific, complex systems. In: Masters JC, Lambert DM, Spencer HG (eds) The recognition of species: speciation and the recognition concept. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp 3–44Google Scholar
  205. Vrba ES (1995b) On the connections between paleoclimate and evolution. In: Vrba ES, Denton GH, Partridge TC, Burckle LH (eds) Paleoclimate and evolution with emphasis on human origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 24–45Google Scholar
  206. Vrba ES (1995c) The fossil record of African antelopes (Mammalia, Bovidae) in relation to human evolution and paleoclimate. In: Vrba ES, Denton GH, Partridge TC, Burckle LH (eds) Paleoclimate and evolution with emphasis on human origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 385–424Google Scholar
  207. Vrba ES (1996) Climate, heterochrony, and human evolution. J Anthropol Res 52:1–28Google Scholar
  208. Vrba ES (1998a) (Monograph) New fossils of Alcelaphini and Caprinae (Bovidae, Mammalia) from Awash, Ethiopia, and phylogenetic analysis of Alcelaphini. Palaeontol Afr 34:127–198Google Scholar
  209. Vrba ES (1998b) Multiphasic growth models and the evolution of prolonged growth exemplified by human brain evolution. J Theor Biol 190:227–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Vrba ES (2000) Major features of neogene mammalian evolution in Africa. In: Partridge TC, Maud R (eds) Cenozoic geology of Southern Africa. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 277–304Google Scholar
  211. Vrba ES (2004) Ecology, evolution, and development: perspectives from the fossil record. In: Hall BK, Pearson RD, Muller GB (eds) Environment, development, and evolution. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge, pp 85–105Google Scholar
  212. Vrba ES (2005) Mass turnover and heterochrony events in response to physical change. Paleobiology 31:157–174Google Scholar
  213. Vrba ES, DeGusta D (2004) Do species populations really start small? New perspectives from the Late Neogene fossil record of African mammals. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 359:285–293Google Scholar
  214. Vrba ES, Gould SJ (1986) The hierarchical expansion of sorting and selection: sorting and selection cannot be equated. Paleobiology 12:217–228Google Scholar
  215. Vrba ES, Schaller GB (2000) Phylogeny of Bovidae (Mammalia) based on behavior, glands and skull morphology. In: Vrba ES, Schaller GB (eds) Antelopes, deer, and relatives: fossil record, behavioral ecology, systematics, and conservation. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 203–222Google Scholar
  216. Vrba ES, Denton GH, Partridge TC, Burckle LH (eds) (1995) Paleoclimate and evolution with emphasis on human origins. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  217. Wake DB, Larson A (1987) Multidimensional analysis of an evolutionary lineage. Science 238:42–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Washburn SL (1960) Tools and human evolution. Sci Am 203:63–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Wesselman HB (1995) Of mice and almost-men. In: Vrba ES, Denton GH, Partridge TC, Burckle LH (eds) Paleoclimate and evolution with emphasis on human origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 356–368Google Scholar
  220. West-Eberhard MJ (2003) Developmental plasticity and evolution. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  221. White TD, Suwa G, Asfaw B (1994) Australopithecus ramidus, a new species of early hominid from Aramis, Ethiopia. Nature 371:306–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. White TD, Ambrose SH, Suwa G, Su DF, DeGusta D, Bernor RL, Boisserie J-R (2009) Macrovertebrate Paleontology and the Pliocene Habitat of Ardipithecus ramidus. Science 326:87–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. White TD, Asfaw B, Beyene Y, Haile-Selassie Y, Lovejoy CO, Suwa G, WoldeGabriel G (2009) Ardipithecus ramidus and the paleobiology of early hominids. Science 326:75–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. White TD, Ambrose SH, Suwa G, WoldeGabriel G (2010) Response to comment on the paleoenvironment of Ardipithecus ramidus. Science 328:1105Google Scholar
  225. Williams GC (1966) Adaptation and natural selection. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  226. WoldeGabriel G, White TD, Suwa G, Renne P, de Heinzelin J, Hart WK, Heiken G (1994) Ecological and temporal placement of early Pliocene hominids at Aramis, Ethiopia. Nature 371:330–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. WoldeGabriel G, Ambrose SH, Barboni D, Bonnefille R, Bremond L, Currie B, DeGusta D (2009) The geological, isotopic, botanical, invertebrate, and lower vertebrate surroundings of Ardipithecus ramidus. Science 326:65. doi:10.1126/science.1175817Google Scholar
  228. Wood B (1995) Evolution of the early hominin masticatory system: mechanisms, events, and triggers. In: Vrba ES, Denton GH, Partridge TC, Burckle LH (eds) Paleoclimate and evolution with emphasis on human origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 438–448Google Scholar
  229. Wood B, Leakey M (2011) The Omo-Turkana Basin fossil hominins and their contribution to our understanding of human evolution in Africa. Evol Anthropol 20:264–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Wood B, Richmond BG (2000) Human evolution: taxonomy and paleobiology. J Anat 197:19–60PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Wood B, Strait D (2003) Patterns of resource use in early Homo and Paranthropus. J Hum Evol 46:119–162Google Scholar
  232. Wright S (1932) The roles of mutation, inbreeding, crossbreeding, and a selection in evolution. Proc VIth Int Congr Genet 1:356–366Google Scholar
  233. Wright S (1967) Comments on the preliminary working papers of Eden and Waddington. In: Moorehead PS, Kaplan MM (eds) Mathematical challenges to the Neo-Darwinian theory of evolution. The Wistar Institute Symposium No 5 Philadelphia, pp 117–120Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geology and GeophysicsYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations