Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology

Living Edition
| Editors: Ian P. Stolerman, Lawrence H. Price

Hallucinogen Abuse and Dependence

  • John H. Halpern
  • Joji Suzuki
  • Pedro E. Huertas
  • Torsten Passie
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27772-6_43-2

Definition

Hallucinogen abuse and dependence are known complications resulting from the illicit use of drugs in this category, such as LSD and psilocybin. Users do not experience withdrawal symptoms, but the general criteria for substance abuse and dependence otherwise apply. Dependence is estimated in approximately 2 % of recent-onset users in the United States. Acute hallucinogen intoxication may induce a plethora of physical and psychological effects that can become so overwhelming to the user as to result in seeking emergency psychiatric care. Providing supportive psychotherapy usually proves effective, though sometimes the use of a sedative hypnotic for anxiety is indicated in addition. No randomized controlled trials have examined treatments of hallucinogen abuse or dependence, but standard treatments (motivational interviewing, relapse prevention, outpatient counseling, participation in self-help groups, family therapy) should still be offered.

Role of Pharmacotherapy

Both...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic criteria from DSM-V. American Psychiatric Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  2. Halpern JH, Pope HG Jr (1999) Do hallucinogens cause residual neuropsychological toxicity? Drug Alcohol Depend 53:247–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hollister LE (1984) Effects of hallucinogens in humans. In: Jacobs BL (ed) Hallucinogens: neurochemical, behavioral, and clinical perspectives. Raven, New York, pp 19–33Google Scholar
  4. Leuner H (1962) Die experimentelle psychose. Julius Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Nichols DE (2004) Hallucinogens. Pharmacol Ther 101:131–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Passie T, Halpern JH, Stichtenoth DO, Emrich HM, Hintzen A (2008) The pharmacology of lysergic acid diethylamide: a review. CNS Neurosci Ther 14:295–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Stone AL, O’Brien MS, De La Torre A, Anthony JC (2007) Who is becoming hallucinogen dependent soon after hallucinogen use starts? Drug Alcohol Depend 87:153–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Strassman RJ (1984) Adverse reactions for psychedelic drugs: a review of the literature. J Nerv Ment Dis 172:577–595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Taylor RL, Maurer JI, Tinklenberg JR (1970) Management of “bad trips” in an evolving drug scene. JAMA 213:422–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Wright D, Sathe N, Spagnola K (2007) State estimates of substance use from the 2004–2005 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (DHHS Publication No. SMA 07–4235, NSDUH Series H-31). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, RockvilleGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • John H. Halpern
    • 1
  • Joji Suzuki
    • 2
  • Pedro E. Huertas
    • 1
  • Torsten Passie
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Alcohol and Drug AbuseMcLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, The Laboratory for Integrative PsychiatryBelmontUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryBrigham and Women’s Hospital, Addiction Psychiatry Service, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry, Social Psychiatry and PsychotherapyHannover Medical SchoolHannoverGermany