Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion

Living Edition
| Editors: David A. Leeming

Empathy Expanded

  • Lee W. Bailey
Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27771-9_200019-3

A mother was watching her 2-year-old daughter and 4-year-old son play around in a pool of water. The little girl splashed her brother a bit too much, and he pulled back, wiping his eyes. She leaned in and said “Oh, I’m sorry. I love you.”

This girl demonstrated empathy, in the standard sense of intuitively understanding what her brother was feeling – a bit overwhelmed by the splashing. Her empathy included sympathy and bonding, apologizing, and assuring him of her loving family unity. This innocent child’s caring empathy is natural, but sadly lacking in the world today. This lack is part of our painful problems of human alienation. These problems are very serious, and we need to expand our understanding of empathy into more conscious awareness, its definitions, dynamics, and scope.

Empathy’s definitions incorporate a wide field with two commonly thought extremes: (1) One side is cognitive or thinking about it (to “put myself in another person’s shoes” or“see from another’s...

Keywords

Emotional Intelligence Ethical Action World Trade Center Sacred Tree Empathy Deficit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

  1. Basch, M. F. (1983, February). Empathic understanding: A review of the concept and some theoretical considerations. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 31, 101–126. http://apa.sagepub.com/content/31/1/101Google Scholar
  2. Breggin, P. (1997). The heart of being helpful: Empathy and the creation of a healing presence. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  3. Brennan, K. (2006). Starwars origins. http://www.moongadget.com/origins/myth.html
  4. Cameron, J. (2007). Avatar Screenplay. https://sfy.ru/?script=avatar. (2009). Avatar. DVD. Los Angeles: Twentieth-Century Fox Films.Google Scholar
  5. Campbell, J. (1949). The hero with a thousand faces. New York: Bollingen/Meridian.Google Scholar
  6. Christ, C., & Plaskow, J. (Eds.). (1979). Womanspirit rising. San Francisco: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  7. Eisenberg, N., & Strayer, J. (Eds.). (1987). Empathy and its development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Eun, K. K. (2015, July 17). ‘Good cop!’ Watch Texas police officer dance the ‘Nae Nae’ with kids. http://www.today.com/news/police-officer-dances-nae-nae-kids-viral-video-t32441
  9. Ford, C. (1999). The hero with an African face: The mythic wisdom of traditional Africa. New York: Bantam.Google Scholar
  10. Fox, M. (1991). Creation spirituality. San Francisco: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  11. Freud, S. (1974). In J. Strachey (Ed.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 1, Draft H, “Paranoia” [1895]). London: Hogarth.Google Scholar
  12. Goodstein, L. (2013, September 19). Pope says church is “Obsessed” with gays, abortion and birth control. The New York Times. p. A1. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/20/world/europe/pope-bluntly-faults-churchs-focus-on-gays-and-abortion.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
  13. Gordon, M. (2005). Roots of empathy. New York: The Experiment Publishing.Google Scholar
  14. Hanh, T. N. (1998). Interbeing: Fourteen guidelines for engaged Buddhism (3rd ed.). Berkeley: Parallax Press.Google Scholar
  15. Hillman, J. (2004). Uniform edition of the writings of James Hillman. Dallas: Dallas Institute of Humanities and Culture.Google Scholar
  16. Hoffman, J. (2016, February 2). A new vision for dreams of the dying. New York Times/Health. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/02/health/dreams-dying-deathbed-interpretation-delirium.html
  17. Jung, C. G. (Ed.). (1968). Man and his symbols. New York: Dell Publishing.Google Scholar
  18. Jung, C. G. (1978). The collected works of C.G. Jung (20 Vols.) (ed. McGuire, W., & trans: Hull, R. F. C.). Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Jung, C. G. (2009). In S. Shamdasani (Ed.), The red book: Liber novus (pp. 251–359). New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  20. Katz, R. L. (1963). Empathy: Its nature and uses. London: Free Press/Collier-Macmillan.Google Scholar
  21. Kohut, H. (1977). The restoration of the self. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  22. Lama, D. (2011). Beyond religion: Ethics for the whole world. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.Google Scholar
  23. Leeming, D. (2013). The world of myth: An anthology (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Lipps, T. (1903). Einfühlung, inner Nachamung, und Organempfinungen [Empathy, Inner Imitation, and Organ Perception]. Archiv für die Gesamte Psychologie, 2, 185–204.Google Scholar
  25. Lucas, G., & Moyers, B. (2014). The mythology of Star Wars. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YpiEk42_O_Q
  26. Macy, J. (2003). World as lover, world as self: Courage for global justice and ecological renewal. Berkeley: Parallax Press.Google Scholar
  27. Moore, T. (1996). The re-enchantment of everyday life. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  28. Nowak, M. (2011, February). The complicated history of Einfühlung. Argument, 1, 201–326. http://yadda.icm.edu.pl/yadda/element/bwmeta1.element.desklight-ebccc56f-4dce-40dd-9c80-e1ccf6f6bcc7/c/10_argument-2-08-Nowak.pdf
  29. Obama, B. (1995–2015). Video selections. Center for Building a Culture of Empathy. Video selections Edwin Rutsch (Ed.). http://cultureofempathy.com/Obama/VideoClips.htm
  30. Queen, C. (Ed.). (1996). Engaged Buddhism and Buddhist liberation movements in Asia. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  31. Rogers, C. (1980). A way of being. New York: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  32. Roman Catholic Womenpriests. (2002). http://www.romancatholicwomenpriests.org.
  33. Rummel, R. J. The dynamic psychological field. Beverly Hills: Sage https://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/NOTE10/.HTM.
  34. Samuels, A. (1985). Jung and the post-jungians. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. CrossRef: Digital copy at Taylor and Francis eBooks: http://www.tandfebooks.com/action/showBook? doi=10.4324/9780203359297.
  35. Sideris, L. (2013). I see you: Interspecies empathy and Avatar. In B. Taylor (Ed.), Avatar and nature spirituality. Waterloo: Wilfred Laurier University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Smart, N. (2000). Worldviews: Crosscultural explorations of human beliefs (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  37. Titchener, E. (1909). Lectures on the experimental psychology of the thought- processes. New York: Macmillan http://www.crossingdialogues.com/Ms-E14-01.pdf.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Vincent, T. (2012). From sympathy to empathy: Baudelaire, Vischer, and early modernism. Mosaic: A Journal for the Interdisciplinary Study of Literature, 45(1), 1–15.Google Scholar
  39. Vischer, R. (1873). On the optical sense of form: A contribution to aesthetics. In H. F. Mallgrave & E. Ikonomou (Eds.), Empathy, form, and space: Problems in German Aesthetics (pp. 89–122). Santa Monica: The Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities (1993).Google Scholar
  40. Von Franz, M.-L. (1970). The interpretation of fairytales. New Orleans: Spring Publications.Google Scholar
  41. Winnicott, D. (1986). Home is where we start from. London: Norton.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lee W. Bailey
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Philosophy and Religion, Ithaca CollegeIthacaUSA