Encyclopedia of Parasitology

Living Edition
| Editors: Heinz Mehlhorn


  • Heinz Mehlhorn
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27769-6_808-2


Greek: kytos = cell; kinein = move.

This term describes proteins produced and excreted by cells. They stimulate the activity of other cells (e.g., immune modulation). Cytokines include interleukins (IL), interferons (IFN), tumor necrosis factors (TNF) α and β (- cachetin, lymphotoxin α), colony stimulating factors (CSF), transforming growth factors (TGF), and chemotactic factors (CF).


Growth Factor Tumor Necrosis Tumor Necrosis Factor Transform Growth Factor Colony Stimulate Factor 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Zoomorphologie, Zellbiologie und ParasitologieHeinrich-Heine-UniversitätDüsseldorfGermany