Encyclopedia of Parasitology

Living Edition
| Editors: Heinz Mehlhorn

Toscana Virus Generalities

  • Christian Melaun
  • Antje Werblow
  • Sven Klimpel
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27769-6_5115-1
The Toscana virus (TOSV, sometimes also called Tuscany virus), an arbovirus of the genus Phlebovirusincluding Sicilian virus, Naples virus, and Punta Toro virus, is a serotype of sandfly fever, which is widely distributed in the Mediterranean region. Among the sandfly fever viruses, the Naples serocomplex and the Sicilian serocomplex are the two main serocomplexes associated with human diseases. Toscana virus is more diverse than other well-studied phleboviruses (e.g., Rift Valley fever virus). All phleboviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family and are enveloped RNA viruses with three helicoidal nucleocapsids (80–120 nm diameter) and grow in the cytoplasm of the host cell. The tripartite genome consists of negative-sense RNA divided into S (small)-, M (medium)-, and L (large)-segments. The L-segment is about 6,400 nucleotides in length and encodes for the viral polymerase. The M-segment with about 4,200 nucleotides encodes for structural glycoproteins, whereas the S-segment encodes...


Rift Valley Rift Valley Fever Rift Valley Fever Virus Viral Meningitis Nucleic Acid Amplification Technique 
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Further Reading

  1. Ciufolini MG, Maroli M, Verani P (1985) Growth of two phleboviruses after experimental infection of their suspected sandfly vector, Phlebotomus perniciosus (Diptera: Psychodidae). Am J Trop Med Hyg 34:174–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ciufolini MG, Maroli M, Guandalini E, Marchi A, Verani P (1989) Experimental studies on the maintenance of Toscana and Arbia viruses (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus). Am J Trop Med Hyg 40:669–675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Cusi MG, Savellini GG (2011) Diagnostic tools for Toscana virus infection. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 9:799–805. doi:10.1586/eri.11.54CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Depaquit J, Grandadam M, Fouque F, Andry P, Peyrefitte C (2010) Arthropod-borne viruses transmitted by Phlebotomine sandflies in Europe: a review. Euro Surveill 15(10):19507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Maroli M, Ciufolini MG, Verani P (1993) Vertical transmission of Toscana virus in the sandfly, Phlebotomus perniciosus, via the second gonotrophic cycle. Med Vet Entomol 7:283–286CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Melaun C, Werblow A, Busch MW, Liston A and Klimpel S (2014) Bats as potential reservoir hosts for vector-borne diseases. In: Klimpel S, Mehlhorn H (eds) Parasitology research monographs, vol 5, 1st edn. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 25–61Google Scholar
  7. Pérez-Ruiz M, Collao X, Navarro-Marí JMA, Tenorio A (2007) Reverse transcription, real-time PCR assay for detection of Toscana virus. J Clin Virol 39:276–281. doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2007.05.003CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Tesh RB, Lubroth J, Guzman H (1992) Simulation of arbovirus overwintering: survival of Toscana virus (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) in its natural sandfly vector Phlebotomus perniciosus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 47:574–581PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medical Biodiversity and ParasitologyGoethe UniversityFrankfurt am MainGermany
  2. 2.Emerging and Neglected Tropical Diseases UnitBiodiversity and ClimateResearch Centre (BiK-F)Frankfurt am MainGermany
  3. 3.Institute for Ecology, Evolution and Diversity; Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F); Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung (SGN)Goethe University (GU)Frankfurt am MainGermany