Encyclopedia of Parasitology

Living Edition
| Editors: Heinz Mehlhorn

Bird Malaria

  • Heinz Mehlhorn
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27769-6_4957-1

Birds are worldwide infected with merozoites/schizonts of various Plasmodium species. In general there are no severe symptoms in infections (e.g., with P. relictum, P. cathemerium, or Pc elongatum). Apparently birds and these protozoans have a long history of coexistence. However, in nonadapted hosts (e.g., penguins or birds imported from far away) severe symptoms and death may occur. Vectors are – depending on the Plasmodium species – mosquitoes of the genera Aedes, Anopheles, or Culex.


Severe Symptom Plasmodium Species Bird Malaria 
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Further Reading

  1. Lindt S, Hörning B (1966) Über Malaria und Pinguine. Verhandl Erkrank Zootiere 8:223–231Google Scholar
  2. Seed TM, Manwell RD (1977) Plasmodia of birds. In: Kreier JP (ed) Parasitic protozoa, vol. 3, pp 133–357Google Scholar
  3. Valkunas G et al (2008) PCR-based identification of Plasmodium elongatum. Parasitol Res 102:1185–1193CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Zoomorphologie, Zellbiologie und ParasitologieHeinrich-Heine-UniversitätDüsseldorfGermany