Encyclopedia of Parasitology

Living Edition
| Editors: Heinz Mehlhorn

Waterborne Outbreaks of Protozoan Diseases

  • Heinz Mehlhorn
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27769-6_4925-1

This term describes smaller or large epidemics due to cyst-forming intestinal protozoans, which are excreted via feces and are transmitted by oral uptake of contaminated drinking water. These worldwide-occurring events are probably very common, so that the reported 199 epidemics during the years 2004–2010 are probably only the “tip of the ice block.” Interestingly most of the documented epidemics (46.7 %) occurred in Australia, 30.6 % in North America and only 16.5 % in Europe. Most common were outbreaks due to Cryptosporidium species (60.3 %) and Giardia lamblia (35.2 %).


Drinking Water North America Oral Uptake Giardia Lamblia Contaminate Drinking Water 
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Further Reading

  1. Baldursson S, Karanis P (2011) Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: review of worldwide outbreaks 2004–2010. Water Res 45:6603–6614CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Zoomorphologie, Zellbiologie und ParasitologieHeinrich-Heine-UniversitätDüsseldorfGermany