Encyclopedia of Parasitology

Living Edition
| Editors: Heinz Mehlhorn

Trypanosome Lytic Factors

  • Heinz Mehlhorn
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27769-6_4410-1

Humans possess powerful, naturally occurring toxins, which in principle allow them to survive attacks of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), since they may provide a sterile protection. These trypanocidal complexes penetrate into the trypomastigote stages by binding to their haptoglobin/hemoglobin receptor (HpHbR), trafficking to the lysosomes and finally causing lysis by damage of the cell membrane. However, especially some strains of T. brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense have developed independent resistance against these trypanosome lytic factors (TLFs), which have been defined as TFL1 and TFL2 occurring in human blood and contain both apolipoprotein A-I, apo L-I, and Hpr. In addition TFL2 contains considerable amounts of IgM. TFL1 is a minor subclass of human high-density lipoprotein (HDL/40 % lipid) of about 500 kDa, while TF2has only 2 % lipid and a size of 2 mDa. Besides resistance the trypanosomes avoid the contact with the toxic TLP by repeated change of their surface...


Cell Membrane Surface Layer Human Blood Single Stage Pathogenic Strain 
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Further Reading

  1. Stephens NA et al (2012) Trypanosome resistance to human innate immunity: targeting Achilles’ heel. Trends Parasitol 28:539–545CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Zoomorphologie, Zellbiologie und ParasitologieHeinrich-Heine-UniversitätDüsseldorfGermany