Encyclopedia of Parasitology

Living Edition
| Editors: Heinz Mehlhorn

Stomach Worms of Equids

  • Heinz Mehlhorn
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27769-6_4353-1


Greek: habros = smooth, thin; trichos = tiny hair; nema = filament. Latin: musca = fly; maior = larger; megastoma = large mouth; microstoma = small mouth; axis = axis. English: Stomach worms. Drasche, Richard (1850–1923) Austrian Scientist.

Geographic Distributions/Epidemiology

Worldwide; in farmed animals local epidemics occur.

Morphology/Life Cycle

  • Habronema muscae; H. majus (syn. microstoma); reach a length of 25 mm (♀) and 15 mm (♂).

  • Draschia megastoma: ♀ = 13 mm, ♂ = 10 mm.

  • Trichostrongylus axei: ♀ = 8 mm; ♂ = 6 mm.

Habronema and Draschia live in nodules in the stomach wall or are attached there in the mucous layer (Trichostrongylus). The females excrete embryonated eggs (Trichostrongylus), larvae-containing eggs (Habronema), or already free larvae (Draschia), which all can be found in the feces of the hosts. For Habronema and Draschia, fly larvae (e.g., Musca) are used as intermediate hosts, which as adults transmit the infectious larvae 3 onto the lips of horses. Trichostron...


Skin Lesion Oral Uptake Intermediate Host Typical Lesion Mucous Layer 
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Further Reading

  1. Amando S et al (2014) Habronema muscae larvae: developmental stages, migration route and morphological changes in Musca domestica. Exp Parasitol 136:35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Rehbein S et al (2013) Prevalence, intensity and seasonality of gastrointestinal parasites in abattoir horses in Germany. Parasitol Res 112:407–413CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Schuster RK et al (2013) A xenodiagnostic method using Musca domestica for the diagnosis of gastric habronematosis and examining the anthelmintic efficacy of moxidectin. Vet Parasitol 197:176–181CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Zoomorphologie, Zellbiologie und ParasitologieHeinrich-Heine-UniversitätDüsseldorfGermany