Encyclopedia of Parasitology

Living Edition
| Editors: Heinz Mehlhorn

Sleeping Sickness: Humans – Symptoms

  • Heinz Mehlhorn
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27769-6_4332-1
Infection with both Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense lead to diseases called sleeping sickness and/or trypanosomiasis. Although the agents of this disease are subspecies of the same Trypanosoma brucei species, they differ in many general aspects (Table 1) and in their introduced clinical symptoms which can be grouped into two successive phases:
Table 1

Basic differences between Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense and their pathogenic effects

Criteria

T. b. gambiense

T. b. rhodesiense

Distribution

West and Central Africa

Southeast Africa

Hosts

Main hosts: humans

Main hosts: ruminants

Reservoir hosts: pigs

Accidental hosts: humans

Vectors

Tsetse flies of the Glossina palpalis group

Tsetse flies of the Glossina morsitans group

Climatic distribution

Humid biotopes

Dry grasslands

Virulence

Moderate to very variable

High

Parasitemia

Low, intermittent

Often high, persistent

Clinical progress

Chronically

Acute

Clinical symptoms

Months up to 6 years

Weeks, rarely...

Keywords

Clinical Symptom General Aspect Successive Phasis Trypanosoma Brucei Trypanosoma Brucei Gambiense 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Further Reading

  1. Barrel MP et al (2007) Human African trypanosomiasis. Br J Pharmacol 152:1155–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brun R et al (2010) Human African trypanosomiasis. Lancet 375:148–159CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Priotto G et al (2009) Nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy for second stage African T. b. gambiense trypanosomiasis. Lancet 374:56–64CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Zoomorphologie, Zellbiologie und Parasitologie Universitätsstraße 1DüsseldorfGermany