Encyclopedia of Parasitology

Living Edition
| Editors: Heinz Mehlhorn


  • Heinz Mehlhorn
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27769-6_4153-1
This is a chemical compound (PMD) which is also found in small quantities in leaves of the Australian tree Eucalyptus citriodora (which is now also cultivated in many warmer countries around the world). Its chemical properties are listed in Table 1. Although PMD in practice is produced by chemical synthesis, it is the only natural active ingredient that is permitted to be used as an insect repellent in the USA and Europe by the official authorities. Only in very high concentrations, the Eucalyptus citriodora extract reaches similar efficacy as DEET, but as other essential oils natural PMD has a high allergenic potential. Furthermore, the synthetically produced PMD has lower efficacy than natural one.
Table 1

PMD details



Open image in new window


IUPAC name



Other names

para-Menthane-3,8-diol; 2-Hydroxy-α,α,4-trimethylcyclohexanemethanol



CAS number




EC number




Chemical Property Active Ingredient Chemical Compound Chemical Synthesis Similar Efficacy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Further Reading

  1. Carrol SP, Loye J (2006) PMD, a registered botanical mosquito repellent with DEET-like efficacy. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 22:507–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Drapeau J (2011) Green synthesis of para-menthane-3,8-diol from Eucalyptus citriodora: application for repellent products. C R Chim 14:629–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Zoomorphologie, Zellbiologie und ParasitologieHeinrich-Heine-UniversitätDüsseldorfGermany