Encyclopedia of Parasitology

Living Edition
| Editors: Heinz Mehlhorn

Gnathostoma Species

  • Heinz Mehlhorn
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27769-6_3916-1


Greek: gnathos = jaw; stoma = mouth; hispidus = thorny; dolor = pain spinosus = thorny, with little teeth.

Geographic Distributions/Epidemiology

  1. (a)

    G. spinigerum: hosts are cats, dogs, humans in Asia, America, Africa: infected tourists in Europe; ♂ = 10–30 mm; ♀ = ~50 mm.

  2. (b)

    G. hispidium: hosts are pigs, occasionally numerous cases in Europe and Asia. ♂ = 20 mm; ♀ = 25 mm.

  3. (c)

    G. doloresi: hosts are pigs (occasionally humans) in the Philippines, India and Asia; ♂ = 20–23 mm; ♀ = 29.34 mm.


Morphology/Life Cycle

These nematodes belong to the order Spirurida, live in the intestinal tracts of their final hosts, and reach maturity there (Fig. 1). Humans are accidental hosts; fish, copepods, and some other hosts may become intermediate hosts. The adult worms have a characteristic shape. They possess an anterior bulbus which is separated from the posterior region by a constriction. Name giving are the parallel rows of hooks which cover the cuticle of the worms (Fig. 2). The...
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Further Readings

  1. Herman JS, Chiodini PL (2009) Gnathostomiasis: another emerging imported disease. Clin Microbiol Rev 22:484–492PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Laga AC et al (2012) Cutaneousgnathostomiasis: report of 6 cases with emphasis on histopathological demonstration of the larva. J Am Acad Dermatol 68:301–305CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Pillai GS et al (2012) Case report: intraocular gnathostomiasis: report of a case on review of literature. Am J Trop Med Hyg 86:620–623PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ramirez-Avilar L (2009) Eosinophilic due to Angiostrongylus and Gnathostoma species. Emerg Infect 48:322–323Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für ZoomorphologieZellbiologie und Parasitologie Universitätsstraße 1DüsseldorfGermany