Encyclopedia of Parasitology

Living Edition
| Editors: Heinz Mehlhorn

Marine Intermediate Hosts

  • Markus Busch
  • Sven Klimpel
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27769-6_3508-1

Marine heteroxenous parasite species face the problem of finding suitable intermediate hosts in a huge three-dimensional diluted environment. Especially in the meso- and bathypelagic layers (200–4000 m depth) of the deep sea the prevalences in evertebrates (Mollusca, Crustacea) and vertebrates (Teleostei) are quite low compared to the benthic realm or shelf areas of the world oceans. Metazoan parasite species, particularly from the groups Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda, Acanthocephala, with mandatory host changes depend on the availability of proper host organism to maintain their life cycles and reach the final hosts for reproduction. Previous studies and reviews documented that parasite species with a low host specificity are able to maintain their life cycles in the areas of the open ocean and the deep sea, while more specific species are rather distributed in more biomass and consequently more intermediate host-rich regions. In their life cycle, parasitic larvae regularly use the food...


Intermediate Host Digestive Gland Body Cavity Final Host Paratenic Host 
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Further Reading

  1. Busch MW, Kuhn T, Münster J, Klimpel S (2012) Marine crustaceans as potential hosts and vectors for metazoan parasites. In: Mehlhorn H (ed) Arthropods as vectors of emerging diseases, vol 3, 1st edn, Parasitology research monographs. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 329–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hochberg FG (1990) Diseases caused by prostistans and metazoans. In: Kinne O (ed) Diseases of marine animals, vol III. Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, Hamburg, pp 47–227Google Scholar
  3. Klimpel S, Busch MW, Kellermanns E, Kleinertz S, Palm HW (2009) Metazoan deep-sea fish parasites, ACTA Biologica Benrodis, Supplementband 11. Verlag Natur und Wissenschaft, SolingenGoogle Scholar
  4. Marcogliese DJ (1995) The role of Zooplankton in the transmission of helminth parasites. Rev Fish Biol Fish 5:336–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Marcogliese DJ (2002) Food webs and the transmission of parasites to marine fish. Parasitology 124:83–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Rohde K (ed) (2005) Marine parasitology. CABI Publishing, Collingwood, p 565Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Ecology, Evolution and Diversity; Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F); Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung (SGN)Goethe-University (GU)Frankfurt am MainGermany