Encyclopedia of Parasitology

Living Edition
| Editors: Heinz Mehlhorn


  • Heinz Mehlhorn
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27769-6_3318-2


This disease received its name with respect to the district Tulare in California (the USA), where in the year 1912 the two American scientists McCoy and Chapin isolated a bacterium from a squirrel showing plaque-like symptoms of disease and called it Bacterium tularensis. Since 1974 this agent of disease is listed as Francisella tularensis honoring E. Francis, who detected the relations between the plaque-like symptoms of rodents, rabbits, etc. and the symptoms of humans, which had been described by varying names such as deer fly fever, Ohara’s disease (in Japan), Francis’ disease, market men’s disease, rabbit fever (in the USA), or lemming fever (in Norway). The second species F. philomiragia is found in the waters of the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea, but is of low virulence.

Geographic Distribution/Epidemiology

The agents of disease are distributed in their animal hosts (rodents, rabbits, hares, beavers, etc.) in countries of the Northern Hemisphere (the USA, China,...

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Further Reading

  1. Grunow R (2009) Francisella spp. In: Neumeister B (ed) Microbiological diagnostic, 2nd edn. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  2. Hartelt K et al (2008) Spread of ticks and tick borne diseases in Germany due to global warming. Parasitol Res 103:S109–S116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Petersen JM, Schriefer ME (2005) Tularemia = emergence/reemergence. Vet Res 36:4355–4467CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Zoomorphologie, Zellbiologie und Parasitologie Universitätsstraße 1DüsseldorfGermany