Encyclopedia of Parasitology

Living Edition
| Editors: Heinz Mehlhorn

Theileria Species

  • Jabbar S. Ahmed
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27769-6_3146-2


The genus name honors the Swiss-South African veterinarian Arnold Theiler (1867–1936). The species names have their origin in Latin: mutare = change; parvus = small, tiny; annulus = ring; ovis = sheep; hircus = goat; separare = dividing from; equus = horse; velum ferrare = sail-bearing; orientalis = belonging to Eastern countries; Greek: tauros = bull; Sergent, Lawrence = family name of the discoverer of a species.

Geographic Distribution/Epidemiology

Worldwide (see Table 1); in Europe occur only a few species of low pathogenicity, while in Africa the relevant species reach killing rates among their vertebrate hosts of up to 90 % or higher (in case these animals are not adapted).
Table 1

Important species of the genus Theileria





Geographic distribution

Theileria parva parva

Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. spp.

Cattle, Syncerus caffer

East Coast fever


T. parva lawrenci

Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. spp.

Cattle, Syncerus caffer



Pathogenic Species Plasmodium Species Giemsa Stain Binary Fission East Coast Fever 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Further Reading

  1. Bilgic HB (2013) Development of a multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Theileria annulata, Babesia bovis and Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Exp Parasitol 133:222–229CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Friedhoff KT, Liebisch A (1978) Piroplasmeninfektionen der Haustiere. Tierärztl Prax 6:125–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Gachohi J et al (2012) Epidemiology of East Coast fever (Theileria parva infection) in Kenya: past, present and the future. Parasit Vectors 7. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-5-194Google Scholar
  4. Gonder R (1911) Die Entwicklung von Theileria parva, dem Erreger des Küstenfiebers der Rinder in Afrika. Teil 2. Arch Protistenkd 21:143–164Google Scholar
  5. Kleine FK (1906) Kultivierungsversuch der Hundepiroplasmen. Z Hyg Infekt 54:11–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Koch R (1898) Reiseberichte über Rinderpest, Bubonenpest in Indien, Afrika, Tsetse oder Surrakrankheit, Texasfieber, tropische Malaria, Schwarzwasserfieber. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Koch R (1906) Beiträge zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Piroplasmen. Z Hyg Infekt 54:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Latif AA, Hove T (2011) History and critical review of Theileria parva (Boleni), the vaccine stock against Zimbabwean cattle theileriosis. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2:163–167CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ma M, Baumgartner M (2013) Filopodia and membrane blebs drive efficient matrix invasion of macrophages transformed by the intracellular parasite Theileria annulata. PLoS One 8, e75577CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Mehlhorn H, Schein E (1976) Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen an Entwicklungsstadien von Theileria parva im Darm der Überträgerzecke Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum. Z Tropenmed Parasitol 27:182–191Google Scholar
  11. Mehlhorn H, Schein E (1984) The piroplasms: life cycle and sexual stages. Adv Parasitol 23:38–106Google Scholar
  12. Mehlhorn H, Schein E (1998) Redescription of Babesia equi Laveran 1901 as Theileria equi Mehlhorn, Schein 1998. Parasitol Res 84:467–475CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Mehlhorn H et al (1975) Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen an Entwicklungsstadien von Theileria annulata im Darm der Überträgerzecke Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum. Parasitol Res 48:137–150Google Scholar
  14. Mehlhorn H et al (1978) Electron microscopic studies on the development of kinetes of Theileria parva in the gut of the vector tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Acta Trop 35:123–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Mehlhorn H et al (1979) Electron microscopic studies on Theileria ovis: development of kinetes in the gut of the vector tick Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi and their transformation within cells of the salivary glands. J Protozool 26:377–385CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Mehlhorn H et al (1980) Light and electron microscopic study on developmental stages of Babesia canis within the gut of the tick Dermacentor reticulatus. J Parasitol 66:220–228CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Mehlhorn H et al (1981) Electron microscopic study on the effects of halofuginone on Theileria parva. Z Tropmed Parasitol 32:231–233Google Scholar
  18. Mehlhorn H et al (1984) In-vitro culture and syngamy of supposed gametes in Theileria annulata. Z Bakt Hyg Parasitol 34:102–105Google Scholar
  19. Oryan A et al (2013) Clinicopathological findings of a natural outbreak of Theileria annulata in cattle: an emerging disease in southern Iran. Parasitol Res 112:123–127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Rudzinska MA et al (1982) Penetration of the peritrophic membrane of the tick by Babesia microti. Cell Tissue Res 221:471–481CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Salim B et al (2013) Rapid detection and identification of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi by high resolution melting (HMR) analysis. Parasitol Res 112:3883–3886CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Schein E (1975) On the life cycle of Theileria annulata in the midgut and hemolymph of Hyalomma anatoclicum excavatum. Parasitol Res 47:165–167Google Scholar
  23. Schein E et al (1977) Zur Feinstruktur der erythrozytären Stadien von Theileria annulata. Z Tropenmed Parasitol 28:249–360Google Scholar
  24. Schein E et al (1978) Light and electron microscopic studies on the schizogony of 4 Theileria species of cattle (T. parva parva, T. p. lawrencei, T. mutans and T. annulata). Protistologica 14:337–348Google Scholar
  25. Schein E et al (1979) Electron microscopical studies in the development of Babesia canis (Sporozoa) in the salivary glands of the vector tick Dermacentor reticulatus. Acta Trop 36:229–241PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Veterinary Infection Biology and ImmunologyResearch Centre Borstel, Leibniz Centre for Medicine and BiosciencesBorstelGermany