Nagana is a very important disease of domestic livestock. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), it is probably the only disease which has profoundly affected the settlement and economic development of a major part of a continent. Today, it is still endemic in more than 35 African countries and causes huge economic losses (Trypanosoma).
In cattle the pathogenesis is dominated by three features: anemia, tissue lesions, and immunosuppression. The cause of anemia is complex and involves a variety of mechanisms. Although hemolysins are released by trypanosomes, intravascular hemolysis is not a prominent feature, and anemia is rather attributed to erythrophagocytosis by cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system in the spleen, bone marrow, lungs, and lymph nodes. These cells are stimulated by the formation of complexes between immunoglobulin specific for...