Leishmaniasis is a disease corresponding to a large spectrum of clinical symptoms, including visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL), diffuse cutaneous (DCL), and mucocutaneous (MCL) forms. Recent estimations indicate that more than 400 million people are at risk of catching VL and CL and the annual number of cases of VL or CL has turned into hundreds of thousands. The different species are responsible for various clinical manifestations and exhibit peculiarities of their natural cycle such as animal reservoirs or species of vectors as well as epidemiological features. Therefore a universal control strategy is not possible. Species such as L. major, L. tropica, L. braziliensis, L. mexicana, and L. aethopica cause mostly single, self-healing cutaneous ulcersin humans while chronic diffuse cutaneous forms or progressively...