Living reference work entry
Leishmaniosis is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania that affect various mammalian hosts, but disease occurs most commonly in humans and dogs. The disease in dog is caused by L. infantum. The parasite is obligatory intracellular. It multiplies within macrophages and other cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system and causes chronic inflammatory processes. Clinically, the disease in dogs is characterized by a chronic loss of weight, nonregenerative anemia, intermittent pyrexia, and generalized or symmetrical lymphadenopathy. Cutaneous lesions are very common and include dry exfoliative dermatitis, nodules, ulcers, onychogryposis (clawlike curvature of the nails), and diffuse, symmetrical, or periorbital alopecia (Fig. 1). Ocular lesions such as keratoconjunctivitis, uveitis, and panophthalmitis may be present. Other signs include intermittent lameness, epistaxis, arthropathies, ascites, and intercurrent diarrhea. During postmortem examination,...
KeywordsImmune Response Inflammatory Process Postmortem Examination Cutaneous Lesion Mammalian Host
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