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White-Box Cryptography

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Encyclopedia of Cryptography, Security and Privacy
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Cryptographic obfuscation; Software secure element; Virtual black box


White-box cryptography aims at designing cryptographic implementations which are secure in the white-box model. This model considers insider adversaries (e.g., concurrent processes, malwares) which can gain full access to the internal state of a cryptographic implementation, tamper with the computation, and fully control the execution environment.


Cryptographic algorithms are increasingly deployed in applications embedded on connected devices (smartphone, tablet computer, etc.). This makes the underlying implementations potentially accessible to malware taking (partial) control of the execution environment. In this context, it is relevant to consider an adversary that can analyze the code of the application, tamper with its execution, access the memory, intercept system calls, and use any kind of reverse engineering tool (debuggers, emulators, etc.). The adversary is then said to have...

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Correspondence to Matthieu Rivain .

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Rivain, M. (2023). White-Box Cryptography. In: Jajodia, S., Samarati, P., Yung, M. (eds) Encyclopedia of Cryptography, Security and Privacy. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

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  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-642-27739-9

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-642-27739-9

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