Earth’s Crust and Upper Mantle, Dynamics of Solid–Liquid Systems in
Definition of the Subject
The dynamics of solid–liquid composite systems are of great relevance to many problems in the earth sciences, including how melts or aqueous fluids generated by partial melting or dehydration migrate through the mantle and crust toward the surface, how deformation and fracture in these regions are influenced by the existence of fluids, and also how these fluids can be observed in the seismic tomographic images. The mechanical and transport properties of the solid–liquid composite systems strongly depend on liquid volume fraction and pore geometry, such as pore shape, pore size, and a detailed porosity distribution. Therefore, the microstructural processes that control pore geometry influence macroscopic dynamics, and vice versa. This entry introduces a general continuum mechanical theory to treat the macroscopic dynamics of solid–liquid composite systems with a special emphasis on how such interactions with pore geometry can be described. Although intensive...
KeywordsPore Shape Pore Geometry Effective Medium Theory Elastic Wave Velocity Liquid Volume Fraction
The original and more simplified form of this entry was published in Japanese (Takei 2005). I especially thank Tokyo Geographical Society for the permission to use a modified version of figures and limited text. I thank S. Nagumo for helpful discussions. I also thank B. K. Holtzman and B. Chouet for reading the manuscript and providing helpful comments.
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