Encyclopedia of Biometrics

Living Edition
| Editors: Stan Z. Li, Anil K. Jain

Face Recognition Standards

  • Patrick Grother
  • Dmytro Shevtsov
  • Elham Tabassi
  • Andreas Wolf
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27733-7_237-2



Openly documented data structures for universally interpretable interchange of facial imagery.

Biometric data interchange standards are needed to allow the recipient of a data record to successfully process data from an arbitrary producer. This defines biometric interoperability and the connotation of the phrase “successfully process” is that the sample, in this case, a facial image record, can be accurately identified or verified. This can only be achieved if the data record is both syntactically and semantically conformant to a documentary standard.


Facial image standards are perhaps the oldest documented biometric data standards. Predating even the fingerprint, the facial image has been mandated for identity documents since at least the First World War when several European governments saw the need for a facial photograph to serve as the core element in the cross-border identity verification application. Of course, the data...


Face Recognition Face Image International Civil Aviation Organization Face Recognition Algorithm Automate Face Recognition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick Grother
    • 1
  • Dmytro Shevtsov
    • 2
  • Elham Tabassi
    • 1
  • Andreas Wolf
    • 3
  1. 1.National Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA
  2. 2.KP VTI PJSCKyivUkraine
  3. 3.Bundesdruckerei GmbHBerlinGermany