Aqueous Humor Flow Rate

  • Beat P. Mertz
Living reference work entry


According to CB Toris and CB Camras, September 2007, measuring the outflow of aqueous humor has helped elucidate the pathophysiology of glaucoma and the mechanism of action (MoA) of IOP-lowering treatments. However, difficulties are inherent in each method of measurement, and these issues need to be considered when assessing flow rate. Both authors best describe the situation below.


Anterior Chamber Aqueous Humor Ocular Hypertension Trabecular Meshwork Ciliary Muscle 
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References and Further Reading

  1. Armaly MF (1959) The consistency of the 1955 calibration for various tonometer weights. Am J Ophthalmol 48:602–611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bárány EH (1964) Simultaneous measurement of changing the intraocular pressure and outflow facility in the vervet monkey by constant pressure infusion. Invest Ophthalmol 3:135–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Becker B (1958) The decline in aqueous secretion and outflow facility with age. Am J Ophthalmol 46:731–736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Friedenwald JS (1948) Some problems with the calibration of tonometers. Am J Ophthalmol 31:935–944PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gaasterland D, Kupfer C, Milton R et al (1978) Studies of aqueous humour dynamics in man. VI. Effect of age upon parameters of intraocular pressure in normal human eyes. Exp Eye Res 26:651–656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hayashi M, Yablonski ME, Novack GD (1989) Trabecular outflow facility determined by fluorophotometry in human subjects. Exp Eye Res 48:621–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Johnson T, Fan S, Toris CB, Camras CB (2006) Uveoscleral outflow is reduced in exfoliation syndrome. Paper presented at the ARVO annual meeting, Fort Lauderdale, 2 May 2006Google Scholar
  8. Toris CB, Tafoya ME, Camras CB, Yablonski ME (1989) Effects of apraclonidine on aqueous humor dynamics in human eyes. Exp Eye Res 48:621–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Toris CB, Yablonski ME, Wang Y-L, Camras CB (1999) Aqueous humor dynamics in the aging human eye. Am J Ophthalmol 127:407–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Weinreb RN, Toris CB, Gabelt BT et al (2002) Effects of prostaglandins on the aqueous humor outflow pathways. Surv Ophthalmol 47:S53–S64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Zeimer RC, Gieser DK, Wilensky JT et al (1983) A practical venomanometer. Measurement of episcleral venous pressure and assessment of the normal range. Arch Ophthalmol 101:1447–1449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SD Pharma Solutions Inc.VictoriaCanada

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