Assays for Insulin and Insulin-Like Metabolic Activity Based on Hepatocytes, Myocytes, and Diaphragms

  • Günter Müller
Living reference work entry


Despite the eminent importance of studies with primary and cultured adipocytes or adipose tissues on the basis of their physiological role in the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in humans in combination with the relative low expenditure in preparing adipocytes of high quality and number, compounds and drug candidates for future antidiabetic and antiobesity therapy have to be analyzed for their effects in primary and cultured hepatocytes and myocytes or liver and muscle tissues, too. In principle, the majority of the assays described above for adipocytes can be adapted for the use with hepatocytes and myocytes. However, the following selection takes into account the relative contribution of each process monitored to its role in the whole-body regulation of intermediary metabolism in the normal and disease state. Moreover, technical aspects, such as requirement for a special equipment and applicability in throughput screening assays for drug discovery, were additional criteria.


Fatty Acid Oxidation Glycogen Synthesis Glycogen Phosphorylase GLUT4 Translocation Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References and Further Reading

Glucose Oxidation; Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDC) Activity; and Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase (PDK) Activity

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Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase I (CPTI) Activity; Respiratory Quotient (RQ); Phosphoryation of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACC) and AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (AMPK); and AMPK Activity

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Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACC) Activity

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Gluconeogenesis, Ketone Body Formation and TCA Cycle

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Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (PEPCK) Activity

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Glucose Transport

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Glycogen Synthesis; Glycogen Synthase (GS) Activity; Phosphorylation State of GS; and Protein Phosphatase 1G (PP1G) Activity and Phosphorylation

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Helmholtz MünchenMunichGermany

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