Anesthesia of Experimental Animals

  • Andreas W. Herling
Living reference work entry


In biomedical research, experiments should only be done with a conscious animal if it is not possible to do the study in an anesthetized one. Anesthetic conditions should always be chosen to exclude stress, discomfort, and pain for the animal which could have negative influences on the pharmacological results and reproducibility of the data. Therefore, an experimental design causing minimal discomfort to the animal is always preferable. This is important not only for humanitarian reasons but also for good scientific practice.


Physical Restraint Inhalation Anesthesia Conscious Animal Minor Tranquilizer Major Tranquilizer 
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References and Further Reading

  1. Alpert M, Goldstein D, Triner L (1982) Technique of endotracheal intubation in rats. Lab Anim 32:78–79Google Scholar
  2. Erhard W, Scherer M, Greiner C, Blümel G (1985) Methods of low term anaesthesia in the rat. Z Versuchstierkunde 27:84Google Scholar
  3. Flecknell PA (1996) Laboratory animal anaesthesia (Second Edn.). A Practical Introduction for Research Workers and Technicians. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  4. Guedel AE (1951) Inhalation anaesthesia. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Kohn DF, Wixson SK, White WJ, Benson GJ (1997) Anesthesia and analgesia in laboratory animals. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  6. Sawyer DC (1983) The practice of small animal anaesthesia. W.B. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  7. Van Pelt LF (1977) Ketamine and Xylazine for surgical anaesthesia in rats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 171:842–844PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbHFrankfurtGermany

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