Personalized Medicine

  • Peggy Peissig
  • Anne Nikolai
  • Ingrid Glurich
  • Murray Brilliant
Living reference work entry


Personalized Medicine is the practice of medicine that uses specific individualized patient information to proactively guide decisions made in regard to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, taking into account individual clinical characteristics and individual biomarkers (genomic, proteomic). Personalized Medicine demonstrated as genotype-guided drug therapy is known as Pharmacogenomics (PGx), critically guiding the right medication to the right person at the right time. Drugs are metabolized and interact with proteins encoded by an individual’s genome. Specific genetic variants can dramatically affect the conversion of predrugs into their active forms as well as the metabolism of drugs in the body. Individuals’ reactions to well over 100 drugs are known to be affected by specific genetic variants in at least 84 genes. Most individuals have at least one of these variants, some of which are associated with severe adverse drug events. Pharmacogenomics (PGx) aids our understanding of the role and effect of these variants on drug metabolism in patient care. Herein we present practical design considerations for developing an environment for translation and integration of PGx clinical decision aids into the electronic health record and describe the processes and computing architecture used to support such an integration effort.


Personalized Medicine Electronic Health Record Clinical Decision Support Clinical Decision Support System Genomic Medicine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the eMERGE Network, partially supported by NIH grant U01HG006389 and the UW Institute for Clinical and Translational Research (ICTR) funded through NIH grant UL1TR000427.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peggy Peissig
    • 1
  • Anne Nikolai
    • 1
  • Ingrid Glurich
    • 1
  • Murray Brilliant
    • 1
  1. 1.Marshfield ClinicMarshfieldUSA

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