Isolated Perfused Skin Flap
Riviere et al. (1986) and Riviere and Monteiro-Riviere (1991) described the isolated perfused porcine skin flap as an in vitro model for percutaneous absorption and cutaneous toxicology studies. This group has used the model for various purposes (Riviere et al. 1995; Vaden et al. 1996; Baynes et al. 1997; Inman et al. 2003; Monteiro–Riviere et al. 2003).