Isolated Perfused Skin Flap

  • Howard Maibach
Living reference work entry


Riviere et al. (1986) and Riviere and Monteiro-Riviere (1991) described the isolated perfused porcine skin flap as an in vitro model for percutaneous absorption and cutaneous toxicology studies. This group has used the model for various purposes (Riviere et al. 1995; Vaden et al. 1996; Baynes et al. 1997; Inman et al. 2003; Monteiro–Riviere et al. 2003).


Skin Flap Myocutaneous Flap Percutaneous Absorption Atropine Sulfate Epigastric Vessel 
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References and Further Reading

  1. Agaoglu G, Siemionow M (2005) Combined semimembranosus muscle and epigastric skin flap: a new model of composite-free flap in the rat. Ann Plast Surg 55:310–315CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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  3. Baynes RE, Monteiro-Riviere NA, Qiao GL, Riviere JE (1997) Cutaneous toxicity of the benzidine dye direct red 28 applied as mechanistically-defined chemical mixtures (MDCM) in perfused porcine skin. Toxicol Lett 93:159–169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bristol DG, Riviere JE, Monteiro-Riviere NA, Bowman KF, Rogers RA (1991) The isolated perfused equine skin flap. Preparation and metabolic parameters. Vet Surg 20:424–433CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cottler PS, Gampper TJ, Rodeheaver GT, Skalak TC (1999) Evaluation of clinically applicable exsanguination treatments to alleviate venous congestion in an animal skin flap model. Wound Repair Regen 7:187–195CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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  9. Inman AO, Still KR, Jederberg WW, Carpenter RL, Riviere JE, Brooks JD, Monteiro-Riviere NA (2003) Percutaneous absorption of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-nitrophenol (DBNP) in isolated perfused porcine skin. Toxicol In Vitro 17:289–292CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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  19. Riviere JE, Monteiro-Riviere NA (1991) The isolated perfused porcine skin flap as an in vitro model for percutaneous absorption and cutaneous toxicology. Crit Rev Toxicol 21:329–344CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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  21. Riviere JE, Brooks JD, Williams PL, Monteiro-Riviere NA (1995) Toxicokinetics of topical sulfur mustard penetration, disposition, and vascular toxicity in isolated perfused porcine skin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 135:25–34CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Stadelmann WK, Hess DB, Robson MC, Greenwald DP (1998) Aprotinin in ischemia-reperfusion injury: flap survival and neutrophil response in a rat skin flap model. Microsurgery 18:354–361CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Teunissen BD, Walshaw R, Hauptman JG, Degner DA, Jackson AH (2004) Evaluation of primary critical ischemia time for the deep circumflex iliac cutaneous flap in cats. Vet Surg 33:440–445CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Ulusal BG, Ulusal AE, Yazar S, Chang CH, Hung LM, Wei FC (2005) Pectoral skin flap as a reliable and simple model for vascularized composite skin transplantation research. J Reconstr Microsurg 21:187–190CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Vaden SL, Page RL, Riviere JE (1996) An in vitro-in vivo validation of the isolated tumor and skin flap preparation as a model of cisplatin delivery to tumors. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 35:173–177CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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  27. Yenidunya MO, Tsukagoshi T, Morioka D, Hosaka Y (1998) An axial-pattern skin flap in the rat. J Reconstr Microsurg 14:383–386CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DermatologyUC San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

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