Acne Models

  • Howard Maibach
Living reference work entry


Bioassays for topical antiandrogens are based on inhibition of sebum secretion. Sebum production is increased by endogenous or exogenous androgens in many species including humans. In the mouse (Lapière and Chèvremont 1953; Neumann and Elger 1966), the Mongolian gerbil (Mitchell 1965) and the golden hamster (Hamilton and Montagna 1950), the male sex hormone stimulates sebum production and sebaceous gland growth. Morphometric evaluation by light microscopy in the rat has shown that castration causes a large reduction in the volume of the glands (Sauter and Loud 1975). The administration of testosterone over several days produces an enlargement of the sebaceous glands. Early transformations, which take place in the morphology of the organelles in sebaceous cells, can be observed by electron microscopy. In the cytoplasm of intermediate cells, a large number of vesicular elements derived from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum are formed, participating in the synthesis of lipids which appear as droplets of varying size (Karasek 1968; Morohashi 1968). Following an increase of lipid droplets, the cells increase in size, become totally differentiated, and are pushed toward the apex of the gland where they break up and release their content (sebum) into the infundibulum. This effect is used for morphometric evaluation of topical antiandrogens.


Sebaceous Gland Syrian Hamster Azelaic Acid Cyproterone Acetate Testosterone Propionate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Acne Models

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Activity on Sebaceous Glands of the Fuzzy Rat

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Activity on Ear Sebaceous Glands of Syrian Hamsters

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Activity on Ear Sebaceous Glands of Rabbits

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Activity on the Hamster Flank Organ

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Activity on the Skin of the Rhino Mouse

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Activity on the Skin of the Mexican Hairless Dog

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  6. Loux JJ, DePalma PD, Yankel RM (1974) Testing antiacne agents in the Mexican hairless dog. J Soc Cosmet Chem 25:473–479Google Scholar
  7. Matsumura H, Yoshizawa N, Kimura T, Watanabe K, Gibran MS, Engrav LH (1992) A burn wound healing model in the hairless descendant of the Mexican hairless dog. J Burn Care Rehabil 18:306–312Google Scholar
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In Vitro Sebocyte Model

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  12. Xia L, Zouboulis CC, Detmar M, Mayerda-Silva A, Stadler R, Orfanos CE (1989) Isolation of human sebaceous glands and cultivation of sebaceous gland-derived cells as an in vitro model. J Invest Dermatol 93:315–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Zouboulis CC, Xia LQ, Detmar M, Bogdanoff B, Giannakopoulos G, Gollnick H, Orfanos CE (1991a) Culture of human sebocytes and markers of sebocytic differentiation in vitro. Skin Pharmacol 4:74–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Zouboulis CC, Korge B, Akamatsu H, Xia LQ, Schiller S, Gollnick H, Orfanos CE (1991b) Effects of 13-cis-retinoic acid, all-trans-retinoic acid, and acitrecin on the proliferation, lipid synthesis and keratin expression of cultured human sebocytes in vitro. J Invest Dermatol 96:792–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Zouboulis CC, Korge BP, Mischke K, Orfanos CE (1993) Altered proliferation, synthetic activity, and differentiation of cultured human sebocytes in the absence of vitamin A and their modulation by synthetic retinoids. J Invest Dermatol 101:628–633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Zouboulis CC, Krieter A, Gollnick H, Mischke D, Orfanos CE (1994) Progressive differentiation of human sebocytes in vitro is characterized by increasing cell size and altering antigen expression and is regulated by culture duration and retinoids. Exp Dermatol 3:151–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Zouboulis CC, Xia L, Akamatsu H, Seltmann H, Fritsch M, Hornemann S, Ruhl R, Chen W, Nau H, Orfanos CE (1998) The human sebocyte culture model provides new insights into development and management of seborrhoea and acne. Dermatology 196:21–31PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DermatologyUC San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

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