In recent years, considerable progress has been made in developing in vitro test systems. In vitro assays are ideal tools for rapid screening with high reproducibility and increased sensitivity, and they are relatively inexpensive, especially compared with in vivo studies. In pharmaceutical industry, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in in vitro toxicology and in the search for in vitro methods for predicting toxicological effects. The industry needs early, rapid, and robust preclinical lead optimization technology screening assays, which allow a lead series of compounds to be ranked for desirable or undesirable characteristics.


HepG2 Cell Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore H9c2 Cell Primary Hepatocyte Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sanofi Pharma Deutschland GmbHA company of the Sanofi-Aventis Group DSARFrankfurtGermany

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