Advertisement

Drug-Addiction and Drug-Dependency

  • Charles P. France
Reference work entry

Abstract

Drug abuse is a complex phenomenon, and many factors (e.g., availability, cost) contribute to whether a particular drug will be abused by a particular individual. Nevertheless, many drugs that are abused have common neurobiological and behavioral effects. Consequently, some of the properties of drugs that contribute to abuse can be examined systematically in animals using well-established and validated behavioral procedures. A major strength of this area of research is that the effects of drugs in these procedures (i.e., in nonhuman species) are highly predictive of the effects of the same drugs in humans; thus, behavioral assessments are used both to study the underlying biological and behavioral phenomena associated with drug abuse (e.g., drug reinforcement, physical dependence) and to assess whether new chemical entities have properties in animals that would indicate a likelihood of abuse in humans. Preclinical abuse and dependence liability studies typically comprise the following approaches and procedures:
  • Physical dependence

  • Tolerance

  • Drug discrimination

  • Self-administration

  • Conditioned place preference

Keywords

Conditioned Place Preference Place Preference Physical Dependence Discriminative Stimulus Effect Drug Discrimination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References and Further Reading

  1. Aceto MD (1990) Assessment of physical dependence techniques for the evaluation of abused drugs. In: Adler MW, Cowan A (eds) Testing and evaluation of drugs of abuse, vol 6, Modern methods in pharmacology. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 67–79Google Scholar
  2. Acquas E, Di Chiara G (1994) D1 receptor blockade stereospecifically impairs the acquisition of drug-conditioned place preference and place aversion. Behav Pharmacol 5:555–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Acquas E, Carboni E, Garau L, Di Chiara G (1990) Blockade of acquisition of drug-conditioned place aversion by 5-HT3 antagonists. Psychopharmacology 100:459–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmed SH, Walker JR, Koob GE (2000) Persistent increase in the motivation to take heroin in rats with a history of drug escalation. Neuropsychopharmacology 22:413–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Amalric M, Cline EJ, Martinez JL Jr, Bloom FE, Koob GF (1987) Rewarding properties of β-endorphin as measured by conditioned place preference. Psychopharmacology 91:14–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bals-Kubik R, Herz A, Shippenberg TS (1988) β-endorphin-(1–27) is a naturally occurring antagonist of the reinforcing effects of opioids. Naunyn -Schmiedeberg’s Arch Pharmacol 338:392–396Google Scholar
  7. Bals-Kubik R, Shippenberg TS, Herz A (1990) Involvement of central μ and δ opioid receptors in mediating the reinforcing effects of beta-endorphin in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol 175:63–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Balster RL, Prescott WR (1990) Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol discrimination in rats as a model for cannabis intoxication. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 16:55–62Google Scholar
  9. Bechara A, Van der Kooy D (1987) Kappa receptors mediate the peripheral aversive effects of opiates. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 28:227–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bechtholt AJ, Gremel CM, Cunningham CL (2004) Handling blocks expression of conditioned place aversion but not conditioned place preference by ethanol in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 79:739–744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Becker GL, Gerak LR, Koek W, France CP (2008) Antagonist-precipitated and discontinuation-induced withdrawal in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology 201:373–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Becker GL, Gerak LR, Li JX, Koek W, France CP (2010) Precipitated and conditioned withdrawal in morphine-treated rats. Psychopharmacology 209:85–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bertalmio AJ, Woods JH (1987) Differentiation between μ and κ receptor mediated effects in opioid drug discrimination: apparent pA2 analysis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 243:591–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bertalmio AJ, Herling S, Hampton RY, Winger G, Woods JH (1982) A procedure for rapid evaluation of the discriminative stimulus effects of drugs. J Pharmacol Methods 7:289–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Black K, Shea C, Dursun S, Kutcher S (2000) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor discontinuation syndrome: proposed diagnostic criteria. J Psychiatry Neurosci 25:255–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Boisse NR, Periana RM, Guarino JJ, Druger HS, Samoriski GM (1986) Pharmacologic characterization of acute chlordiazepoxide dependence in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 239:775–783PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Boisse NR, Quaglietta N, Samoriski GM, Guarino JJ (1990) Tolerance and physical dependence to a short-acting benzodiazepine, midazolam. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 252:1125–1133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bormann NM, Cunningham CL (1998) Ethanol-induced conditioned place aversion in rats: effects of interstimulus interval. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 59:427–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bossert JM, Poles GC, Wihbey KA, Koya E, Shaham Y (2007) Differential effects of blockade of dopamine D1-family receptors in nucleus accumbens core or shell on reinstatement of heroin seeking induced by contextual and discrete cues. J Neurosci 27:12655–12663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bozarth MA (1987) Intracranial self-administration procedures for the assessment of drug reinforcement. In: Bozarth MA (ed) Methods for assessing the reinforcing properties of abused drugs. Springer, New York/Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 178–187Google Scholar
  21. Brady JV, Griffiths RR, Hienz RD, Ator NA, Lukas SE, Lamb RJ (1987) Assessing drugs for abuse liability and dependence potential in laboratory primates. In: Bozarth MA (ed) Methods for assessing the reinforcing properties of abused drugs. Springer, New York/Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 45–85Google Scholar
  22. Brandt MR, France CP (1998) Chronic l-alpha acetylmethadol in rhesus monkeys: discriminative stimulus and other behavioral measures of dependence and withdrawal. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 287:1029–1037PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Broadbent J, Muccino KJ, Cunningham CL (2002) Ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in 15 inbred mouse strains. Behav Neurosci 116:138–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brockwell NT, Beninger RJ (1996) The differential role of A1 and A2 adenosine subtypes in locomotor activity and place conditioning in rats. Behav Pharmacol 7:373–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Brockwell NT, Eikelboom R, Beninger RJ (1991) Caffeine-induced place and taste conditioning: production of dose-dependent preference and aversion. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 38:513–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Brockwell NT, Ferguson DS, Beninger RJ (1996) A computerized system for the simultaneous monitoring of place conditioning and locomotor activity in rats. J Neurosci Methods 64:227–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Buckett WR (1964) A new test for morphine-like physical dependence (addiction liability) in rats. Psychopharmacologia 6:410–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Calcagnetti DJ, Quatrella LA, Schechter MD (1996) Olfactory bulbectomy disrupts the expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference. Physiol Behav 59:597–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Carboni E, Acquas E, Leone P, di Chiara G (1989) 5-HT3 receptor antagonists block morphine- and nicotine- but not amphetamine-induced award. Psychopharmacology 97:175–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Carroll ME, Gao Y, Brimijoin S, Anker JJ (2011) Effects of cocaine hydrolase on cocaine self-administration under a PR schedule and during extended access (escalation) in rats. Psychopharmacology 213:817–829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Chaperon F, Thiébot MH (1996) Effects of dopaminergic D3-receptor-preferring ligands on the acquisition of place conditioning in rats. Behav Pharmacol 7:105–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Chiodo KA, Läck CM, Roberts DC (2008) Cocaine self-administration reinforced on a progressive ratio schedule decreases with continuous D-amphetamine treatment in rats. Psychopharmacology 200:465–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Collier HOJ, Cuthbert NJ, Francis DL (1981) Clonidine dependence in the guinea-pig isolated ileum. Br J Pharmacol 73:443–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Collins GT, Woods JH (2009) Influence of conditioned reinforcement on the response-maintaining effects of quinpirole in rats. Behav Pharmacol 20:492–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Colpaert FC (1987) Drug discrimination: methods of manipulation, measurement, and analysis. In: Bozarth MA (ed) Methods for assessing the reinforcing properties of abused drugs. Springer, New York/Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 341–372Google Scholar
  36. Colpaert FC, Janssen PAJ (1984) Agonist and antagonist effects of prototype opiate drugs in rats discrimination fentanyl from saline: Characteristics of partial generalization. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 220:193–199Google Scholar
  37. Contarino A, Zanotti A, Drago F, Natolino F, Lipartiti M, Giusti P (1997) Conditioned place preference: no tolerance to the rewarding properties of morphine. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch Pharmacol 355:589–594Google Scholar
  38. Cowan A, Zhu XZ, Mosberg HI, Omnaas JR, Porreca F (1988) Direct dependence studies in rats with agents selective for different types of opioid receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 246:950–955PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Cruz SL, Salazar LA, Villarreal JE (1991) A methodological basis for improving the reliability of measurements of opiate abstinence responses in the guinea pig ileum made dependent in vitro. J Pharmacol Methods 25:329–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Czoty PW, Martelle JL, Nader MA (2010) Effects of chronic d-amphetamine administration on the reinforcing strength of cocaine in rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology 209:375–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Davies AM, Parker LA (1993) Fenfluramine-induced place aversion in a three-choice apparatus. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 44:595–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Davis CM, Stevenson GW, Cañadas F, Ullrich R, Rice KC, Riley AL (2009) Discriminative stimulus properties of naloxone in Long-Evans rats: assessment with the conditioned taste aversion baseline of drug discrimination learning. Psychopharmacology 209:421–429Google Scholar
  43. Daza-Losada M, Minarro J, Aguilar MA, Valverde O, Rodriguez-Arias M (2011) Acute blockade of CB1 receptor leads to reinstatement of MDMA-induced conditioned place preference. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 100:33–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Del Poso E, Barrios M, Baeyens JM (1996) The NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) stereoselectively inhibits morphine-induced place preference in mice. Psychopharmacology 125:209–213Google Scholar
  45. Deneau GA (1964) Pharmacological techniques for evaluating addiction liability of drugs. In: Nodine JH, Siegler PE (eds) Animal and clinical pharmacologic techniques in drug evaluation. Year Book Medical Publishers., Chicago, pp 406–410Google Scholar
  46. Deneau GA, Seevers MH (1964) Drug dependence. In: Laurence DR, Bacharach AL (eds) Evaluation of drug activities: pharmacometrics. Academic, London/New York, pp 167–179Google Scholar
  47. Deneau G, Yanagita T, Seevers MH (1969) Self-administration of psychoactive substances by the monkey. Psychopharmacologia 16:30–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Dykstra LA, Gmerek DE, Winger G, Woods JH (1987) Kappa opioids in rhesus monkeys. I. Diuresis, sedation, analgesia and discriminative stimulus effects. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 242:413–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Dykstra LA, Bertalmio AJ, Woods JH (1988) Discriminative and analgesic effects of mu and kappa opioids: in vivo pA2 analysis. In: Colpaert FC, Balster RL (eds) Transduction mechanisms of drug stimuli. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York, pp 107–121, Psychopharmacology series 4Google Scholar
  50. Eppilito AK, Gerak LR (2010) Tolerance to the rate-increasing and not rate-decreasing effects of pregnenolone in rats. Behav Pharmacol (Epub ahead of print) PMID:20859199Google Scholar
  51. Foltin RW, Evans SM (1997) A novel procedure for studying food and drug seeking in rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology 132:209–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. France CP (1995) A sensitive, efficient drug discrimination procedure for studying kappa antagonists in rhesus monkeys. Analgesia 1:421–424Google Scholar
  53. France CP, Woods JH (1993) U-50488, saline, naltrexone discrimination in U-50,488 treated pigeons. Behav Pharmacol 4:509–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. France CP, Medzihradsky F, Woods JH (1994) Comparison of kappa opioids in rhesus monkeys: behavioral effects and binding affinities. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 268:47–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. France CP, Gerak LR, Winger GD, Medzihradsky F, Bagley JR, Brockunier LL, Woods JH (1995) Behavioral effects and receptor binding affinities of fentanyl derivatives in rhesus monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 274:17–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Frisch C, Hasenöhrl RU, Mattern CM, Häcker R, Huston JP (1995) Blockade of lithium chloride-induced conditioned place aversion as a test for antiemetic agents: comparison of metoclopramide with combined extracts of Zingiber officinale and Ginkgo biloba. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 52:321–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gabriel KI, Cunningham CL, Finn DA (2004) Allopregnanolone does not influence ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in DBA/2 J mice. Psychopharmacology 176:50–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Gaiardi M, Bartoletti M, Bacchi A, Gubellini C, Babbibi M (1997) Motivational properties of buprenorphine as assessed by place and taste conditioning in rats. Psychopharmacology 130:104–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gallaher EJ, Henauer SA, Jacques CJ, Hollister LE (1986) Benzodiazepine dependence in mice after ingestion of drug-containing food pellets. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 237:462–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Garcia J, Kimmeldorf DJ, Koelling RA (1955) Conditioned taste aversion to saccharin resulting from exposure to gamma irradiation. Science 122:157–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Gatley SJ, Meehan SM, Chen R, Pan D-F, Schechter MD, Dewey SL (1996) Place preference and microdialysis studies with two derivatives of methylphenidate. Life Sci 58:PL 345–PL 352Google Scholar
  62. Gellert VF, Holtzman SG (1978) Development and maintenance of morphine tolerance and dependence in the rat by scheduled access to morphing drinking solutions. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 205:536–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Ginsburg BC, Lamb RJ (2006) Fluvoxamine effects on concurrent ethanol- and food-maintained behaviors. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 14:483–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Glassman JM (1971) Agents with analgesic activity and dependence liability. In: Turner RA, Hebborn P (eds) Screening methods in pharmacology, vol II. Academic, New York/London, pp 227–248Google Scholar
  65. Glennon RA, Young R (eds) (2011) Drug discrimination: applications to medicinal chemistry and drug studies. Wiley, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  66. Gmerek DE, Dykstra LA, Woods JH (1987) Kappa opioids in rhesus monkeys. III. Dependence associated with chronic administration. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 242:428–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Goodwin AK, Griffiths RR, Brown PR, Froestl W, Jakobs C, Gibson KM, Weerts EM (2006) Chronic intragastric administration of gamma-butyrolactone produces physical dependence in baboons. Psychopharmacology 189:71–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hein DW, Young AM, Herling S, Woods JH (1981) Pharmacological analysis of the discriminative stimulus characteristics of ethylketazocine in the rhesus monkey. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 218:7–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Henry PK, Howell LL (2009) Cocaine-induced reinstatement during limited and extended drug access conditions in rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology 204:523–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Herling S, Woods JH (1981) Discriminative stimulus effects of narcotics: evidence for multiple receptor-mediated actions. Life Sci 28:1571–1584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Higgins GA, Joharchi N, Sellers EM (1993) Behavioral effects of the 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor agonists 1-phenylbiguanide and m-chlorophenylbiguanide in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 264:1440–1449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hoffman DC (1998) The use of place conditioning in studying the neuropharmacology of drug reinforcement. Brain Res Bull 23:373–387Google Scholar
  73. Hoffman DC, Donovan H (1995) Effects of typical, atypical, and novel antipsychotic drugs on amphetamine-induced place conditioning in rats. Drug Dev Res 36:193–198Google Scholar
  74. Hoffmeister F (1979) Preclinical evaluation of reinforcing and aversive properties of analgesics. In: Beers RF, Bassett EG (eds) Mechanics of pain and analgesic compounds. Raven, New York, pp 447–466Google Scholar
  75. Hoffmeister F (1988) A comparison of the stimulus effects of codeine in rhesus monkeys under the contingencies of a two lever discrimination task and a cross self-administration paradigm: tests of generalization to pentazocine, buprenorphine, tilidine, and different doses of codeine. Psychopharmacology 94:315–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Holtz NA, Lozama A, Prisinzano TE, Carroll ME (2011) Reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in male and female rats treated with modafinil and allopregnanolone. Drug Alcohol Depend (Epub ahead of print) PMID:21820819Google Scholar
  77. Holtzman SG (1983) Discriminative stimulus properties of opioid agonists and antagonists. In: Cooper SJ (ed) Theory in psychopharmacology, vol 2. Academic, London, p 145Google Scholar
  78. Holtzman SG (1990) Discriminative stimulus effects of drugs: relationship to potential for abuse. In: Adler MW, Cowan A (eds) Testing and evaluation of drugs of abuse, vol 6, Modern methods in pharmacology. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 193–210Google Scholar
  79. Hosenbocus S, Chahal R (2011) SSRIs and SNRIs: a review of the discontinuation syndrome in children and adolescents. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 20:60–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Howell LL, Carroll FI, Votaw JR, Goodman MM, Kimmel HL (2007) Effects of combined dopamine and serotonin transported inhibitors on cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 320:757–765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Iwamoto ET (1988) Dynorphin A (1–17) induces ‘reward’ in rats in the place conditioning paradigm. Life Sci 43:503–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Jarbe TU, Swedberg MD (1998) Discriminative stimulus functions of CNS sedative drugs assessed by drug versus drug discrimination procedures in gerbils. Psychopharmacology 135:201–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Kalant H, Khanna JM (1990) Methods for the study of tolerance. In: Adler MW, Cowan A (eds) Testing and evaluation of drugs of abuse, vol 6, Modern methods in pharmacology. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 43–66Google Scholar
  84. Katz JL (1986) Effects of clonidine and morphine on opioid withdrawal in rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology 88:392–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Kennedy BC, Panksepp JB, Runckel PA, Lahvis GP (2011) Social influences on morphine-conditioned place preference in adolescent BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice. Psychopharmacology (Epub ahead of print) PMID:21837434Google Scholar
  86. Kest B, Palmese CA, Hopkins E, Adler M, Juni A, Mogil JS (2002) Naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping in 11 inbred mouse strains: evidence for common genetic mechanisms in acute and chronic morphine physical dependence. Neuroscience 115:463–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Khanna JM, Mayer JM, Lê AD, Kalant H (1984) Differential response to ethanol, pentobarbital and morphine in mice specially bred for ethanol sensitivity. Alcohol 1:447–451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Khroyan TV, Baker DA, Neisewander JL (1995) Dose-dependent effects of the D3-preferring agonist 7-OH-DPAT on motor behaviors and place conditioning. Psychopharmacology 122:351–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Khroyan TV, Fuchs RA, Baker DA, Neisewander JL (1997) Effects of D3-preferring agonists 7-OH-PIPAT and PD-128,907 on motor behaviors and place conditioning. Behav Pharmacol 8:65–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kitaichi K, Noda Y, Hasegawa T, Furukawa H, Nabeshima T (1996) Acute phencyclidine induces aversion, but repeated phencyclidine induces preference in the place conditioning test in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 318:7–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Korkmaz S, Wahlström G (1999) Physical dependence after benzodiazepine treatments in rats: comparison of short and long treatments with diazepam and lorazepam. J Stud Alcohol 60:546–554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kornetsky C, Bain B (1990) Brain-stimulation reward: a model for drug-induced euphoria. In: Adler MW, Cowan A (eds) Testing and evaluation of drugs of abuse, vol 6, Modern methods in pharmacology. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 211–231Google Scholar
  93. Kosten TA (1994) Clonidine attenuates conditioned aversion produced by naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal. Eur J Pharmacol 254:59–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Lal H, Sherman GT (1980) Interceptive discriminative stimuli in the development of CNS drugs and a case of an animal model of anxiety. Annu Rep Med Chem 15:51–58Google Scholar
  95. Langerman L, Zakowski MI, Piskoun B, Grant GJ (1995) Hot plate versus tail flick: evaluation of acute tolerance to continuous morphine infusion in the rat model. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 34:23–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Lepore M, Vorel SR, Lowinson J, Gardner EL (1995) Conditioned place preference induced by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol: comparison with cocaine, morphine, and food award. Life Sci 56:2073–2080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Littmann K, Heredia JM, Hoffmeister F (1979) Eine neue Methode zur enteralen Verabreichung von psychotrop wirksamen Substanzen beim Rhesusaffen. Arzneim Forsch/Drug Res 29:1888–1890Google Scholar
  98. Locke KW, Gorney B, Cornfeldt M, Fielding S (1991) Comparison of the stimulus effects of ethylketocyclazocine in Fischer and Sprague–Dawley rats. Drug Dev Res 23:65–73Google Scholar
  99. Mamoon AM, Barnes AM, Ho IK, Hoskins B (1995) Comparative rewarding properties of morphine and butorphanol. Brain Res Bull 38:507–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Marcus R, Kornetsky C (1974) Negative and positive intracranial thresholds: effects of morphine. Psychopharmacologia 38:1–13Google Scholar
  101. Martellotta MC, Fattore L, Cossu G, Fratta W (1997) Rewarding properties of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid: an evaluation through place preference paradigm. Psychopharmacology 132:1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Martin WR, Eades CG, Thompson WO, Thompson JA, Flanary HG (1974) Morphine physical dependence in the dog. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 189:759–771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Martin WR, Eades CG, Thompson JA, Huppler RE, Gilbert PE (1976) The effects of morphine- and nalorphine-like drugs in the nondependent and morphine-dependent chronic spinal dog. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 197:517–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Martin-Iverson MT, Reimer AR (1996) Classically conditioned motor effects do not occur with cocaine in an unbiased conditioned place preferences procedure. Behav Pharmacol 7:303–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Martin-Iverson MT, Reimer AR, Sharma S (1997) Unbiased cocaine conditioned place preferences (CPP) obscures conditioned locomotion, and nimodipine blockade of cocaine CPP is due to conditioned place aversions. Psychopharmacology 130:327–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. McMahon LR, Javors MA, France CP (2007) Changes in relative potency among positive GABA(A) receptor modulators upon discontinuation of chronic benzodiazepine treatment in rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology 192:135–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. McMillan DE, Wessinger WD, Li M (2009) Effects of drugs and drug combination in pigeons trained to discriminate among pentobarbital, dizocilpine, a combination of these drugs, and saline. J Exp Anal Behav 92:387–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Meert TF, Janssen PAJ (1989) Psychopharmacology of ritanserin: comparison with chlordiazepoxide. Drug Dev Res 18:119–144Google Scholar
  109. Meert TF, de Haes P, Janssen PAJ (1989) Risperidone (R 64 766), a potent and complete LSD antagonist in drug discrimination by rats. Psychopharmacology 97:206–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Meert TF, de Haes LAJ, Vermote PCM, Janssen PAJ (1990) Pharmacological validation of ritanserin and risperidone in the drug discrimination procedure in the rat. Drug Dev Res 19:353–373Google Scholar
  111. Meisch RA, Carroll ME (1987) Oral drug self-administration: drugs as reinforcers. In: Bozarth MA (ed) Methods for assessing the reinforcing properties of abused drugs. Springer, New York/Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 143–160Google Scholar
  112. Morgan D, Roberts DC (2004) Sensitization to the reinforcing effects of cocaine following binge-abstinent self-administration. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 27:803–812PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Mucha RF, Herz A (1985) Motivational properties of kappa and mu-opioid agonists studied with place and taste preference conditioning procedures. Psychopharmacology 82:241–245Google Scholar
  114. Mucha RF, Iversen SD (1984) Reinforcing properties of morphine and naloxone revealed by conditioned place preferences: a procedural examination. Psychopharmacology 82:241–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. O’Dell LE, Chen SA, Smith RT, Specio SE, Balster RL, Paterson NE, Markou A, Zorilla EP, Koob GF (2007) Extended access to nicotine self-administration leads to dependence: circadian measures, withdrawal measures, and extinction behavior in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 320:180–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Olds J (1979) Drives and reinforcements: behavioral studies of hypothalamic functions. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  117. Olds J, Killam KF, Bachy-Rita P (1956) Self-stimulation of the brain used as screening method for tranquilizing drugs. Science 124:265–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Overton DA (1987) Applications and limitations of the drug discrimination method for the study of drug abuse. In: Bozarth MA (ed) Methods for assessing the reinforcing properties of abused drugs. Springer, New York/Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 291–340Google Scholar
  119. Pain L, Oberling P, Sandner G, Di Scala G (1997) Effect of midazolam on propofol-induced positive affective state assessed by place conditioning in rats. Anesthesiology 87:935–943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Papp M, Moryl E, Maccechini ML (1996) Differential effects of agents acting at various sites of the NMDA receptor complex in a place preference conditioning model. Eur J Pharmacol 317:191–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Parker LA (1996) LSD produces place preference and flavor avoidance but does not produce flavor aversion in rats. Behav Neurosci 110:503–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Paxinos G, Watson C (1982) The rat in stereotaxic coordinates. Academic, SidneyGoogle Scholar
  123. Perks SM, Clifton PG (1997) Reinforcer revaluation and conditioned place preference. Physiol Behav 61:1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Pierce TL, Raper C (1995) The effects of laboratory handling procedures on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal behavior in morphine-dependent rats. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 34:149–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Pierce TL, Hope W, Raper C (1996) The induction and quantitation of methadone dependence in the rat. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 36:137–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Porsolt RD, Castagné V, Dürmüller N, Lemaire M, Moser P, Roux S, France Central nervous system (CNS) safety pharmacology studiesGoogle Scholar
  127. Riba P, Ben Y, Smith AP, Furst S, Lee NM (2002) Morphine tolerance in spinal cord is due to interaction between mu- and delta-receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 300:265–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Rodríguez R, Luján M, Campos AE, Chorné R (1978) Morphine-dependence in the isolated guinea pig ileum and its modification by p-chlorophenylalanine. Life Sci 23:913–920PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Rothwell PI, Thomas MJ, Gewirtz JC (2011) Protracted manifestations of acute dependence after a single morphine exposure. Psychopharmacology (Epub ahead of print) PMID:21833504Google Scholar
  130. Saelens JK, Granat FR, Sawyer WK (1971) The mouse jumping test: a simple screening method to estimate the physical dependence capacity of analgesics. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 190:213–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Sante AB, Nobre MJ, Brandao ML (2000) Place aversion induced by blockade of mu or activation of kappa opioid receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter. Behav Pharmacol 11:583–589PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Sañudo-Peña CM, Tsou K, Delay ER, Hohman AG, Force M, Walker JM (1997) Endogenous cannabinoids as an aversive or counter-rewarding system in the rat. Neurosci Lett 223:125–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Schechter MD, Meehan SM (1994) Conditioned place aversion produced by dopamine release inhibition. Eur J Pharmacol 260:133–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Schwandt ML, Higley JD, Suomi SJ, Heilig M, Barr CS (2008) Rapid tolerance and locomotor sensitization in ethanol-naïve adolescent rhesus macaques. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:1217–1228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Seevers MH (1936) Opiate addiction in the monkey. I. Methods of study. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 56:147–156Google Scholar
  136. Seevers MH, Deneau GA (1963) Physiological aspects of tolerance and dependence. In: Root WS, Hoffman FG (eds) Physiological Pharmacology, vol I. Academic, New York/London, p 565Google Scholar
  137. Self DW, Stein L (1992) Receptor subtypes in opioid and stimulation reward. Pharmacol Toxicol 70:87–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Sevak RJ, Owens WA, Koek W, Galli A, Daws LC, France CP (2007) Evidence for D2 receptor mediation of amphetamine-induced normalization of locomotion and dopamine transporter function in hypoinsulinemic rats. J Neurochem 101:151–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Sevak RJ, Koek W, Daws LC, Owens WA, Galli A, France CP (2008a) Behavioral effects of amphetamine in streptozotocin-treated rats. Eur J Pharmacol 581:105–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Sevak RJ, Koek W, Owens WA, Galli A, Daws LC, France CP (2008b) Feeding conditions differentially affect the neurochemical and behavioral effects of dopaminergic drugs in male rats. Eur J Pharmacol 592:109–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Shannon HE, Holtzman SG (1976) Evaluation of the discriminative effects of morphine in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 198:64–65Google Scholar
  142. Shannon HE, Holtzman SG (1986) Blockade of the discriminative effects of morphine by naltrexone and naloxone. Psychopharmacologia 50:119–124Google Scholar
  143. Shelton KL, Dukat M, Allan AM (2004) Effects of 5-HT3 receptor over-expression on the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 28:1161–1171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Sherman G, Lal H (1979) Discriminative stimulus properties of pentylenetetrazol and begrimide: some generalization and antagonism tests. Psychopharmacology 64:315–319Google Scholar
  145. Sherman GT, Lal H (1980) Generalization and antagonism studies with convulsant, GABAergic and anticonvulsant drugs in rats trained to discriminate pentylenetetrazol from saline. Neuropharmacology 19:473–479Google Scholar
  146. Sherman GT, Miksic S, Lal H (1979) Lack of tolerance development to benzodiazepines in antagonism of the pentylenetetrazol discriminative stimulus. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 10:795–797Google Scholar
  147. Shippenberg TS, Herz A (1987) Place preference conditioning reveals the involvement of D1-dopamine receptors in the motivational properties of mu and kappa opioid agonists. Brain Res 436:169–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Shippenberg TS, Bals-Kubik R, Herz A (1987) Motivational properties of opioids: evidence that an activation of δ-receptors mediate reinforcement processes. Brain Res 436:234–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Smith FL, Javed RR, Elzey MJ, Dewey WL (2003) The expression of a high level of morphine antinociceptive tolerance in mice involves both PKC and PKA. Brain Res 985:78–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Steinpreis RE, Kramer MA, Mix KS, Piwowarczyk MC (1995) The effects of MK801 on place conditioning. Neurosci Res 22:427–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Steinpreis RE, Rutell AL, Parrett FA (1996) Methadone produces conditioned place preference in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 54:339–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Stewart JL, McMahon LR (2010) Rimonabant-induced delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol withdrawal in rhesus monkeys: discriminative stimulus effects and other withdrawal signs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 334:347–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Stolerman IP, Mariathasan EA, White JA, Olufsen KS (1999) Drug mixtures and ethanol as compound internal stimuli. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 64:221–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Stolerman IP, Chamberlain S, Bizarro L, Fernandes C, Schalkwyk L (2004) The role of nicotinic receptor alpha 7 subunits in nicotine discrimination. Neuropharmacology 46:363–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Sufka KJ (1994) Conditioned place preference paradigm: a novel approach for analgesic drug assessment against chronic pain. Pain 58:355–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Suzuki T, Misawa M (1995) Sertindole antagonizes morphine-, cocaine-, and methamphetamine-induced place preference in the rat. Life Sci 57:1277–1284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Suzuki T, Funada M, Narita M, Misawa M, Nagase H (1991) Pertussis toxin abolishes μ and δ opioid agonist-induced place preference. Eur J Pharmacol 205:85–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Suzuki T, Funada M, Narita M, Misawa M, Nagase H (1993) Morphine-induced place preference in the CXBK mouse: characteristics of μ opioid receptor subtypes. Brain Res 602:45–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Tsuji M, Nakagawa Y, Ishibashi Y, Yoshii T, Takashima T, Shimada M, Suzuki T (1996) Activation of ventral tegmental GABAB receptors inhibits morphine-induced place preference in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 313:169–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Turenne SD, Miles C, Parker LA, Siegel S (1996) Individual differences in reactivity to the rewarding/aversive properties of drugs: assessment by taste and place conditioning. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 53:511–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Tzschenke M (1998) Measuring reward with the conditioned place preference paradigm: a comprehensive review of drug effects, recent progress and new issues. Prog Neurobiol 56:613–6672Google Scholar
  162. Van der Kooy D (1987) Place conditioning: a simple and effective method for assessing the motivational properties of drugs. In: Bozarth MA (ed) Methods of assessing the reinforcing properties of abused drugs. Springer, New York/Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 229–240Google Scholar
  163. van Heest A, Hijzen TH, Slangen JL, Oliver B (1992) Assessment of the stimulus properties of anxiolytic drugs by means of the conditioned taste aversion procedure. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 42:487–495Google Scholar
  164. Villarreal JE, Martinez JN, Castro A (1977) Validation of a new procedure to study narcotic dependence in the isolated guinea pig ileum. Bull Problems of Drug Dependence, pp 305–314Google Scholar
  165. VonVoigtlander PF, Lewis RA (1983) A withdrawal hyperalgesia test for physical dependence: evaluation of μ and mixed-partial opioid agonists. J Pharmacol Methods 10:277–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Voorhees CM, Cunningham CL (2001) Involvement of the orexin/hypocretin system in ethanol conditioned place preference. Psychopharmacology 214:805–818Google Scholar
  167. Wang Z, Woolverton WL (2007) Estimating the relative reinforcing strength of (+/−)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its isomers in rhesus monkeys: comparison to (+)-methamphetamine. Psychopharmacology 189:483–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Wang JH, Wu XJ, Li CY, Wei JK, Jiang JJ, Liu CR, Yu CY, Carlson S, Hu XT, Ma H, Duan W, Ma YY (2011) Effect of morphine on conditioned place preference in rhesus monkeys. Addict Biol (Epub ahead or print) PMID:21305991Google Scholar
  169. Way EL (1993) Opioid tolerance and physical dependence and their relationship. In: Herz A, Akil H, Simon EJ (eds) Opioids II, vol 104, Handbook of experimental pharmacology. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York, pp 573–596, chapter 53Google Scholar
  170. Way EL, Loh HH, Shen FH (1969) Simultaneous quantitative assessment of morphine tolerance and physical dependence. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 167:1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Weeks JR, Collins RJ (1987) Screening for drug reinforcement using intravenous self-administration in the rat. In: Bozarth MA (ed) Methods for assessing the reinforcing properties of abused drugs. Springer, New York/Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 35–43Google Scholar
  172. Weerts EM, Goodwin AK, Griffiths RR, Brown PR, Froestl W, Jakobs C, Gibson KM (2005) Spontaneous and precipitated withdrawal after chronic intragastric administration of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in baboons. Psychopharmacology 179:678–687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Winsauer PJ, Silvester KR, Moerschbaecher JM, France CP (2000) Cocaine self-administration in monkeys: effects on the acquisition and performance of response sequences. Drug Alcohol Depend 59:51–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Woods JH, France CP, Winger G, Bertamio AJ, Schwarz-Stevens K (1993) Opioid abuse liability assessment in rhesus monkeys. In: Herz A, Akil H, Simon EJ (eds) Opioids II, vol 104, Handbook of experimental pharmacology. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York, pp 609–632, chapter 55Google Scholar
  175. Woolverton WL, Nader MA (1990) Experimental evaluation of the reinforcing effects of drugs. In: Adler MW, Cowan A (eds) Testing and evaluation of drugs of abuse, vol 6, Modern methods in pharmacology. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 165–192Google Scholar
  176. Woolverton WL, Schuster CL (1983) Intragastric self-administration in rhesus monkeys under limited access conditions: methodological studies. J Pharmacol Methods 10:93–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Yokel RA (1987) Intravenous self-administration: response rates, the effects of pharmacological challenges, and drug preference. In: Bozarth MA (ed) Methods for assessing the reinforcing properties of abused drugs. Springer, New York/Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 1–33Google Scholar
  178. Yoshimura K, Horiuchi M, Konishi M, Yamamoto KI (1993) Physical dependence on morphine induced in dogs via the use of miniosmotic pumps. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 30:85–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Zarrindast MR, Meshkani J, Rezayof A, Rotami P (2010) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the dorsal hippocampus and the basolateral amygdala are involved in ethanol-induced conditioned place preference. Neuroscience 168:505–513PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyThe University of Texas Health Science Center at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA

Personalised recommendations