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Bacosides and Neuroprotection

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Natural Products

Abstract

Bacosides are the putative bioactive component of the Indian medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri which was placed second in the most important medicinal plants’ list by the Export-Import Bank of India. Among the bacoside components, bacoside A was found to be more pharmacologically active than bacoside B. Traditionally, Bacopa has been used in ayurvedic medicines as a cure for mental disorders and loss of memory. Later on, other pharmacological properties like antioxidant, antidepressant, antiulcer, hepatoprotective, anticancerous, vasodilator, smooth muscle relaxant, mast cell stabilizer, and various other functions are revealed. Increasing clinical trials indicate the potential role of bacosides even in Alzheimer’s disease and in epilepsy. Bacosides attribute to the neuroprotective function mainly through modulating antioxidant enzymes, namely, SOD, catalase, etc. Bacosides also regulate the levels of different neurotransmitters in the brain. Interestingly, bacosides do not exert any side effects as proven both in animal models and in human volunteers. These features render B. monnieri as well as bacosides pharmacologically immensely important.

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Abbreviations

5-HT:

Serotonin

ALP:

Alkaline phosphatase

AMPA:

2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2- oxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid

AS:

Acute stress

BME:

Bacopa monnieri extract

CA1:

Cornu ammonis 1

CAT:

Catalase

CNS:

Central nervous system

CUS:

Chronic unpredictable stress

DA:

Dopamine

EROD:

7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase

GABA:

γ-aminobutyric acid

GPx:

Glutathione peroxidase

GSH:

Glutathione

GST:

Glutathione S-transferase

Hsp70:

Heat shock protein 70

IBS:

Irritable bowel syndrome

IPP:

Isopentenyl pyrophosphate

LPO:

Lipid peroxidation

NA:

Noradrenaline

NOS:

Nitric oxide synthase

PMN cells:

Polymorphonuclear cells

PROD:

7-pentoxyresorufin-o-dealkylase

SOD:

Super oxide dismutase

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Correspondence to Sumita Jha .

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Majumdar, S., Basu, A., Paul, P., Halder, M., Jha, S. (2013). Bacosides and Neuroprotection. In: Ramawat, K., Mérillon, JM. (eds) Natural Products. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-22144-6_157

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