Advertisement

Transformation and Carcinogenesis

  • Susanne ModrowEmail author
  • Dietrich Falke
  • Uwe Truyen
  • Hermann Schätzl
Reference work entry

Abstract

It was acknowledged long ago that viruses may cause cancer in animals. In 1911, Peyton Rous described viruses as causing sarcomas in poultry. The tumour-inducing virus responsible was later named after him, Rous sarcoma virus. In the following decades, a large number of viruses were discovered that can cause various cancers in poultry and rodents, such as lymphomas, sarcomas and carcinomas. Many of them belong to the family Retroviridae, and were classified into the genera Alpharetrovirus, Betaretrovirus and Gammaretrovirus. Most of these pathogens were isolated from inbred strains of the respective species or from cell cultures; under natural conditions, these strains are likely irrelevant as a cause of cancer in the corresponding species. An exception is feline leukaemia virus ( Sect. 18.1). The tumorigenic potential of oncogenic retroviruses is based on transformationally active proteins. They are similar to cellular products which are ordinarily involved in the regulation of cell division. In contrast to the cellular products, viral oncogene proteins are altered by mutations in such a way that they are not subject to regulatory control, and are thus constitutively active. In fact, the discovery of viral oncogenes was pioneering and has paved the way for deciphering cellular oncogenes, and thus for understanding the molecular basis of carcinogenesis. Evidence for the existence of retroviruses that cause cancer in humans was found only in 1982 when Robert Gallo discovered human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV;  Sect. 18.1).

Keywords

Merkel Cell Carcinoma Barr Virus Rous Sarcoma Virus Actin Cable Feline Leukaemia Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Further Reading

  1. Chiarugi V, Meguelli L, Cinelli M, Basi G (1994) Apoptosis and the cell cycle. Cell Mol Biol Res 40:603–612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Cuff S, Ruby J (1996) Evasion of apoptosis by DNA viruses. Immunol Cell Biol 74:527–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Diller L, Kassel J, Nelson CE, Cryka MA, Litwak G, Gebhardt M, Bressac B, Ozturk M, Baker SJ, Vogelstein B (1990) p53 functions as a cell cycle control protein in osteosarcoma. Mol Cell Biol 10:5772–5781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Hinds PW, Weinberg RA (1994) Tumor suppressor genes. Curr Opin Genet Dev 4:135–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Knudson AG (1993) Antioncogenes and human cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci 90:10914–10921PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kouzarides T (1995) Transcriptional control by the retinoblastoma protein. Semin Cancer Biol 6:91–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Liu X, Miller CW, Koeffler PH, Ber AJ (1993) The p53 activation domain binds the TATA box-binding polypeptide in holo-TFIID, a neighboring p53 domain inhibits transcription. Mol Cell Biol 13:3291–3300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Lowe SW (1999) Activation of p53 by oncogenes. Endocr Relat Cancer 6:45–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ludlow JW, Skuse GR (1995) Viral oncoprotein binding to pRB, p107, p130, p300. Virus Res 35:113–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mahr JA, Gooding LR (1999) Immunoevasion by adenoviruses. Immunol Rev 168:121–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Marcel MM, Roy FM, van Bracke ME (1993) How and when do tumor cells metastasize? Crit Rev Oncog 4:559–594Google Scholar
  12. Mercer WE (1992) Cell cycle regulation and the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 2:251–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Truyen U, Löchelt M (2006) Review of viral oncogenesis in animals and relevant oncogenes in veterinary medicine. In: Dittmar T, Schmidt A, Zänker KS (eds) Infection and inflammation: impacts on oncogenesis. Contributions to microbiology, vol 13. Karger, Basel, pp 101–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susanne Modrow
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dietrich Falke
    • 2
  • Uwe Truyen
    • 3
  • Hermann Schätzl
    • 4
  1. 1.Inst. Medizinische, Mikrobiologie und HygieneUniversität RegensburgRegensburgGermany
  2. 2.MainzGermany
  3. 3.Veterinärmedizinische Fak., Inst. Tierhygiene undUniversität LeipzigLeipzigGermany
  4. 4.Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institut für VirologieTU MünchenMünchenGermany

Personalised recommendations