Cell Damage

  • Susanne ModrowEmail author
  • Falke Dietrich
  • Uwe Truyen
  • Hermann Schätzl
Reference work entry


The disease symptoms associated with viral infections are based on virus-mediated damage to the infected cells and tissues. A distinction is made between direct cell destruction as a result of viral replication, as found in picornaviruses ( Sect. 14.1), and indirect cell destruction, which is generally caused by immunopathological damage. The latter is from damaging effects of the immune response, which was originally developed by the organism for the clearance of pathogens ( Chaps. 7 and  8). For example, in the course of hepatitis B infections, liver cells are attacked and lysed by cytotoxic T cells; therefore, the immune system itself contributes decisively to the emergence of symptoms ( Sect. 19.1).


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Respiratory Syncytial Virus Viral Genome Barr Virus Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis 
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Further Reading

  1. Flint SJ, Enquist LW, Krug RM, Racaniello VR, Skalka AM (2004) Principles of virology. Molecular biology, pathogenesis, and control, 2nd edn. ASM Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
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  5. Luftig RB, Lupo LD (1994) Viral Interactions with the host cell cytoskeleton: the role of retroviral proteases. Trends Microbiol 2:179–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  8. Riede U-N, Werner M, Schaefer H-E (2004) Allgemeine und Spezielle Pathologie, 5th edn. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  9. Smith GL (1994) Virus strategies for evasion of the host response to infection. Trends Microbiol 2:81–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Tomei LD, Cape FO (1994) Apoptosis II: the molecular basis of apoptosis in disease. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring HarborGoogle Scholar
  11. Underwood JCE (2004) General and systematic pathology, 4th edn. Churchill Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susanne Modrow
    • 1
    Email author
  • Falke Dietrich
    • 2
  • Uwe Truyen
    • 3
  • Hermann Schätzl
    • 4
  1. 1.Inst. Medizinische, Mikrobiologie und HygieneUniversität RegensburgRegensburgGermany
  2. 2.MainzGermany
  3. 3.Veterinärmedizinische Fak., Inst. Tierhygiene undUniversität LeipzigLeipzigGermany
  4. 4.Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institut für VirologieTU MünchenMünchenGermany

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