As the opposite of isotropy, the term anisotropy defines the dependency between the material response for a defined loading level and the loading direction.
Theory and Application
One can distinguish between a “general” anisotropic and an orthotropic material behavior. In sheet metal forming one can usually assume orthotropic behavior in the elastic-plastic behavior due to the production process of the semi-finished part by means of rolling. For bulk metal forming, the anisotropic behavior comes more and more into picture and is also limited to the orthotropic type. The elastic region is assumed as isotropic usually because the influence on the forming process itself is negligible. Because anisotropic behavior plays a very important role in sheet metal forming, in the following only this type of semifinished products and the related application in theory and application will be mentioned.
As mentioned before, anisotropic behavior in sheets...
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