Cleaner production has been defined by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (UNEP 2012) as “the continuous application of an integrated preventative environmental strategy to processes, products and services to increase efficiency and reduce risks to humans and the environment” (UNEP/DTIE/SCP 1990).
Theory and Application
Functional performance and purchase price have long been the key selection criteria for the purchase of new machine tools. Today, an evolution towards environmentally benign manufacturing can be observed that is stimulated by three drivers: more stringent regulatory mandates and standards (e.g., ISO 14955, ISO 50001), competitive economic advantage, and proactive green behavior (Gutowski et al. 2005).
- Bourell D, Leu M, Rosen D (2009) Roadmap for additive manufacturing: identifying the future of freeform processing. University of Texas at Austin, Laboratory for Freeform Fabrication, AustinGoogle Scholar
- Brezet H, van Hemel C (1997) EcoDesign: a promising approach to sustainable production and consumption. UNEP, FranceGoogle Scholar
- Dewulf W (2003) A pro-active approach to eco-design: framework and tools, PhD dissertation, K.U. Leuven, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
- ISO/CD 14955-1 (2011) Machine tools – environmental evaluation of machine tools. Part I: design methodology for energy efficient machine toolsGoogle Scholar
- ISO 50001 (2011) Energy management systems – requirements with guidance for useGoogle Scholar
- United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). www.unep.org. Accessed 13 Dec 2012
- United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (1990) Division of Technology, Industry, and Economics (DTIE), Sustainable Consumption & Production Branch (SCP), themes: resource efficient and cleaner production. http://www.unep.fr/scp/cp/. Accessed 13 Dec 2012
- United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) (2012) Cleaner and sustainable production unit. http://www.unido.org/index.php?id=o5152. Accessed 13 Dec 2012
- Wahl E, Vincke K, Himmelsbach M (2011) Recovery of energy from a laser machining system. US patent application publication US2011/0024401Google Scholar
- Wimmer W, Züst R, Lee K-M (2004) Ecodesign implementation – a systematic guidance on integrating environmental considerations into product development. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar