Reference work entry
The end-of-life (EOL) of a product has traditionally been recognized as the point when a product no longer satisfies the needs or expectations of a user. The phrase “end-of-life” is a misnomer since a product at this point may still have considerable functional or material value. A product that someone no longer wishes to use should be thought of as having reached the end of a use cycle, i.e., an end-of-use (EOU) product. An end-of-use product often still has significant functional and material value remaining that can be recovered through reuse, remanufacturing, refurbishing, or recycling. The value of an EOL product varies considerably depending on its condition, quality, and cost to recover the product. At the true end-of-life of a product, any materials of value might be recycled while the remainder is incinerated or disposed in a landfill (Fig. 1).
- Kumar S, Yamaoka T (2006) Closed loop supply chains: a study of US and Japanese car industries. Human Sys Manage 25(1):51–70Google Scholar
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