CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering

2014 Edition
| Editors: The International Academy for Production Engineering, Luc Laperrière, Gunther Reinhart


  • Kosmas AlexopoulosEmail author
  • Sotiris Makris
  • George Chryssolouris
Reference work entry



The pure act or manufacturing process (or the connected series of acts or processes) of actually physically making a product from its material constituents, as distinct from designing the product, planning and controlling its production, assuring its quality (CIRP Dictionary of Production Engineering 2004).

Note: (1) “Production” also designates the organizational unit of a manufacturing enterprise dealing with the fabrication of (series) products. (2) The term “fabrication” is particularly used to distinguish production operations for components as opposed to assembly operations. (3) “Fabrication” is also used to describe the construction of assemblies by welding, e.g., a welded framework.

Theory and Application


Production can be traced as far back as the late nineteenth century when the onset of the industrial revolution resulted in the need for large-scale operations (Pontrandolfo and Okogbaa 1999).

In 1925, Henry Ford wrote in the...

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Copyright information

© CIRP 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kosmas Alexopoulos
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sotiris Makris
    • 1
  • George Chryssolouris
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems and Automation (LMS), Department of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, University of PatrasPatrasGreece