Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)
Physical vapor deposition (PVD) is a vacuum process allowing material transfer in the form of vapor particles from a material source (target) to the substrate.
Theory and Application
The development of PVD techniques is directly linked to the evolution of vacuum, electronics, magnetism, and plasma technologies, as well as to the advances of gaseous chemistry. A combination of numerous related achievements and inventions was the prerequisite for the first industrial application of PVD. In the 1930s, cathode sputtering was employed for the fabrication of coatings (Furth 1932), while sputtering by ion bombardment was reported for commercial application in the 1950s (Wehner 1955). Evaporation techniques like arcing were developing in parallel. Today, complicated techniques offer the potential to produce nano-structured, single- and multilayered coatings, with improved properties. Recent trends aim, among others, at reducing...
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