CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering

2014 Edition
| Editors: The International Academy for Production Engineering, Luc Laperrière, Gunther Reinhart

Augmented Reality

  • Roy DamgraveEmail author
Reference work entry


Augmented reality is a form of mixed reality where the live view of a real-world environment is enhanced by virtual (interactive) overlay techniques. The original publication that introduced the term was stated as the opposite of VR; use computers to augment objects in the real world instead of using computers to enclose people in an artificial world (Wellner et al. 1993).

The virtuality continuum proposed by Milgram states that augmented reality is just one expression of a mixed reality, which combines real and virtual (Milgram and Kishino 1994).

An augmented reality system has to fulfill three requirements (Azuma 1997):
  • Combine real and virtual

  • Interactive in real time

  • Registered in 3D

Theory and Application

Augmented reality (AR) is a variation on virtual reality (VR). Unlike VR, the user is with AR not completely immersed in a virtual environment. The characteristic of AR is that the user can see the real world, as it is at that moment, with virtual objects projected on...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Azuma R (1997) A survey of augmented reality. Teleop Virt Environ 6:355–385Google Scholar
  2. Milgram P, Kishino F (1994) A taxonomy of mixed reality visual displays. IEICE Trans Inf Syst E77-D:1321–1329Google Scholar
  3. Wellner P, Mackay W, Gold R (1993) Computer-augmented environments: back to the real world. Commun ACM 36:24–26Google Scholar

Copyright information

© CIRP 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoy of Design, Production and ManagementUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands