CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering

2014 Edition
| Editors: The International Academy for Production Engineering, Luc Laperrière, Gunther Reinhart

Chip Formation (Abrasive Process)

  • Fritz Klocke
Reference work entry


The chip formation in abrasive processes defines the local interaction between abrasive grains and workpiece material in combination with the surrounding fluid media (cooling lubricant or air). It can mainly be distinguished between brittle and ductile removal mechanisms.

Theory and Application

The common removal mechanisms in grinding can be divided into ductile material removal and brittle material removal. For ductile materials, the chip formation can be differed in three zones beginning with zone one where elastic deformation takes place (see Figs. 1 and 2 left). Because of the shape of the grain, the rake angle is very small at the beginning of the engagement. As the grain continues to penetrate the material the stress exceeds the yield strength, so the deformation decreases only partially while the plastic flow of the material will remain. This is labeled as zone two on the left side of Fig. 1. In zone three, the grain penetrates deeper until the chip thickness h cu...
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Bifano TG (1988) Ductile regime grinding of brittle materials. PhD-thesis North Carolina State UniversityCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bifano TG, Dow TA, Scattergood RO (1991) Ductile regime grinding, a new technology for machining brittle materials. J Eng Ind Trans ASME 113(2):184–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Klocke F (2009) Manufacturing processes 2: grinding, honing, lapping (trans: Kuchle A). Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Marshall DB, Evans AG, Khuri Yakub BT, Tien JW, Kino GS (1983) The nature of machining damage in brittle materials. Proc R Soc Lond A 385:461–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Saljé E, Möhlen H (1987) Prozessoptimierung beim schleifen keramischer werkstoffe [Optimization of grinding processes for engineering ceramics]. Ind Diam Rundsch 21/4:243–247 (in German)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© CIRP 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fraunhofer-Institut für ProduktionstechnologieAachenGermany