CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering

2014 Edition
| Editors: The International Academy for Production Engineering, Luc Laperrière, Gunther Reinhart

Specific Energy

  • Konstantinos SalonitisEmail author
  • John Paralikas
  • Apostolos Fysikopoulos
  • George Chryssolouris
Reference work entry



One important parameter in machining is the specific energy as a measure for energy requirements of each process. Electrophysical and chemical processes are in general material removal processes. Specific energy ( SE) is defined as the ratio of the required energy ( E) to the volume of material removed ( V).
$$ SE=\frac{E}{A}$$
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Ahmadi M, Erfan MR, Torkamany MJ, Safian GA (2011) The effect of interaction time and saturation of rock on specific energy in ND:YAG laser perforating. Opt Laser Technol 43:226–231Google Scholar
  2. Ahmadi M, Erfan MR, Torkamany MJ, Sabbaghzadeh J (2012) The effect of confining pressure on specific energy in Nd:YAG laser perforating of rock. Opt Laser Technol 44:57–62Google Scholar
  3. Choi J, Choudhuri SK, Mazumder J (2000) Role of preheating and specific energy input on the evolution of microstructure and wear properties of laser clad Fe-Cr-C-W alloys. J Mater Sci 35:3213–3219Google Scholar
  4. Chryssolouris G (1991) Laser machining-theory and practice. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Coelho JP, Abreu MA, Pires MC (2000) High-speed laser welding of plastic films. Opt Lasers Eng 34:385–395Google Scholar
  6. Dahotre NB, Harimkar SP (2008) Laser fabrication and machining of materials. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Dekeyser W, Snoeys R, Jennes M (2003) A thermal model to investigate the wire rupture phenomenon for improving performance in EDM wire cutting. J Manuf Syst 4(2):179–109Google Scholar
  8. Gutowski T, Dahmus J, Thiriez A (2006) Electrical energy requirements for manufacturing processes, 13th CIRP international conference on life cycle engineering, Leuven, 31st May–2nd JuneGoogle Scholar
  9. Kozak J (2004) Thermal models of pulse electrochemical machining. Bull Pol Acad Sci Tech Sci 52:4Google Scholar
  10. Liao YS, Yu YP (2004) Study of specific discharge energy in WEDM and its application. Int J Mach Tool Manuf 44:1373–1380Google Scholar
  11. Mackwood AP, Crafer RC (2005) Thermal modelling of laser welding and related processes: a literature review. Opt Laser Technol 37:99–115Google Scholar
  12. Salonitis K, Stournaras A, Stavropoulos P, Chryssolouris G (2009) Thermal modeling of the material removal rate and surface roughness for EDM Die-Sinking. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 40:316–323Google Scholar
  13. Thawari G, Sarin Sundar JK, Sundararajan G, Joshi SV (2005) Influence of process parameters during pulsed Nd:YAG laser cutting of nickel-base superalloys. J Mater Process Technol 170:229–239Google Scholar
  14. Tian X, Günster J, Melcher J, Li D, Heinrich JG (2009) Process parameters analysis of direct laser sintering and post treatment of porcelain components using Taguchi’s method. J Eur Ceram Soc 29:1903–1915Google Scholar
  15. Tönshoff HK, Eggerl R, Klockez F (1996) Environmental and safety aspects of electrophysical and electrochemical processes. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 45(2):553–568Google Scholar
  16. Xu Z, Reed CB, Konercki G, Parker RA, Gahan BC, Bataresh S, Graves RM, Figueroa H, Skinner H (2003) Specific energy for pulsed laser rock drilling. J Laser Appl 15(1):25Google Scholar
  17. Zeng X, Zhu B, Tao Z, Cui K (1996) Analysis of energy conditions for laser cladding ceramic-metal composite coatings. Surf Coat Technol 79:162–169Google Scholar

Copyright information

© CIRP 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Konstantinos Salonitis
    • 1
    Email author
  • John Paralikas
    • 2
  • Apostolos Fysikopoulos
    • 2
  • George Chryssolouris
    • 2
  1. 1.Manufacturing and MaterialsCranfield UniversityCranfield, BedfordshireUK
  2. 2.Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems and Automation (LMS), Department of Mechanical Engineering and AeronauticsUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece