Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) is a symbolic language used to specify the size, shape, orientation, and location of part features. GD&T is a concept widely used for specifying dimensions and tolerances of parts and subassemblies of a product according to their functional requirements.
Tolerancing is the set of activities which manage the tolerances during the product development.
Theory and Application
Where Do Tolerances Come from?
Due to the variations associated with manufacturing process, it is not possible to attain the theoretical dimensions in a repetitive manner; it is accepted that there will be a certain amount of variation in terms of manufacturing geometry and dimensions. It causes a degradation of characteristics of the product. In order to ensure the interchangeability(interchangeability of manufactured parts is a critical element of present-day production – mass production, mass customization,...
Contributions from: Dr Alex BALLU, Dr. Alain ETIENNE, Dr. Nicolas GAYTON, Prof. Luc MATHIEU and Dr. Ahmed Jawad QURESHI. Several references originate from members of the French Group of Research on Tolerancing (GRT) representing different research laboratories. Support of ANR “AHTOLA” project (ANR-11- MONU-013).
- Ballu A, Mathieu L (1999) Choice of functional specifications using graphs within the framework of education. In: van Houten F, Kals H (eds) Global consistency of tolerances. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 197–206, Proceedings of the 6th CIRP international seminar on computer-aided tolerancing, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, 22–24 Mar 1999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bjorke O (1989) Computer-aided tolerancing, 2nd edn. ASME Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Bourdet P, Ballot É (1995) Geometric behavior laws for computer-aided tolerancing. In: Kimura F (ed) Computer-aided tolerancing. In: Proceedings of the 4th CIRP design seminar, The University of Tokyo, 56 Apr 1995, Tokyo, Japan, Part 3: modelling geometrical error, pp 119–131Google Scholar
- Clement A, Valade C, Rivière A (1996) The TTRSs: 13 oriented constraints for dimensioning, tolerancing and inspection. In: Proceedings of the advanced mathematical tools in metrology III conference, 25–28 Sept 1996, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Desrochers A (2007) Geometrical variations management in a multi-disciplinary environment with the Jacobian-Torsor model. In: Davidson JK (ed) Models for computer aided tolerancing in design and manufacturing. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 75–84, Selected papers from the 9th CIRP international seminar on computer aided tolerancing, Tempe, Arizona, USA, 10–12 April 2005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Drake PJ (1999) Dimensioning and tolerancing handbook. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Giordano M, Kataya B, Pairel E (2003) Tolerance analysis and synthesis by means of clearance and deviation spaces. In: Bourdet P, Mathieu L (eds) Geometric product specification an verification: integration of functionality. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 145–154, Selected conference papers of the 7th CIRP international seminar on computer-aided tolerancing, held at the EcoleNormaleSupérieure de Cachan, France, 24–25 April 2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- ISO/TS 17450-1 (2011). Geometrical product specifications (GPS) – general concepts – part 1: model for geometrical specification and verification. International Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- Laperrière L, Lafond P (1999) Modeling tolerances and dispersions of mechanical assemblies using virtual joints. In: Proceedings of the DETC99/DAC [Design engineering technical conferences/Design automation conference], Las Vegas, Nevada, 12–15 Sept 1999Google Scholar
- Lööf J, Hermansson T, Söderberg R (2005) An efficient solution to the discrete least-cost tolerance allocation problem with general loss functions. In: Davidson JK (ed) Models for computer aided tolerancing in design and manufacturing. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 115–124, Selected papers from the 9th CIRP international seminar on computer aided tolerancing, Tempe, Arizona, USA, 10–12 April 2005Google Scholar
- Mathieu L, Ballu A (2003) GEOSPELLING: a common language for specification and verification to express method uncertainty. In: Proceedings of 8th CIRP seminar on computer aided tolerancing, 28–29 Apr 2003, NCGoogle Scholar
- Morse EP, You X (2009) GapSpace multi-dimensional assembly analysis. In: Giordano M, Mathieu L, Villeneuve F (eds) Product lifecycle management: geometric variations. Wiley-ISTE, London, pp 273–298, From a CIRP seminar on computer aided tolerancing, Annecy, France, 2009Google Scholar
- Salomons OW, JongePoerink HJ, van Slooten F, van Houten FJAM, Kals HJJ (1995) A tolerancing tool based on kinematic analogies. In: Proceedings of the 4th CIRP design seminar, The University of Tokyo, April 5–6, 1995, Tokyo, Japan, Part 1: functional tolerancing, pp. 47–70Google Scholar
- Schmitt R, Behrens C (2007) A statistical method for analyses of cost- and risk optimal tolerance allocations based on assured input data.In: Weckenmann A (ed) Book of abstracts – 10th CIRP conference on computer aided tolerancing, specification and verification for assemblies: March 21st – 23rd, 2007 in Erlangen, Germany. Shaker, AachenGoogle Scholar
- Sellakh R, Rivière A, Chevassus N, Marguet B (2001) An assisted method for specifying ISO tolerances applied to structural assemblies. In: Bourdet P, Mathieu L (eds) Geometric product specification an verification: integration of functionality. Kluwer, Dordrecht, Selected conference papers of the 7th CIRP international seminar on computer-aided tolerancing, held at the EcoleNormaleSupérieure de Cachan, France, 24–25 Apr 2001Google Scholar
- Serré P, M’Henni F, Clément A (2010) A parametric approach to determine minimum clearance in overconstrained mechanisms. In: Giordano M, Mathieu L, Villeneuve F (eds) Product lifecycle management – geometric variations. Wiley-ISTE, London, pp 21–38Google Scholar
- Tsai JC, Cheng KC (2005) Cost-effective tolerance allocation for machining processes, From the 9th CIRP international seminar on computer aided tolerancing, 10–12 Apr 2005, TempeGoogle Scholar
- Villeneuve F, Mathieu L (eds) (2010) Geometric tolerancing of products. Wiley-ISTE, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Wang H, Roy U (2005) A graph-based method for mechanical product family modeling and functional tolerancing (Paper No.: DETC2005 – 85546) In: ASME 2005 international design engineering technical conferences and computers and information in engineering conference, vol 2: 31st design automation conference, parts A and B, Long Beach, 24–28 Sept 2005, pp 141–154Google Scholar