CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering

2014 Edition
| Editors: The International Academy for Production Engineering, Luc Laperrière, Gunther Reinhart

Cladistics for Products and Manufacturing

Reference work entry



Cladistics is a hierarchical classification technique which reveals evolution courses of organisms based on their shared characters. It was originally introduced and developed by Hennig (1966, republished in 1999). Cladistics generates phylogenetic trees (Fig. 1), which are acyclic tree graphs that show the relationships between the studied entities and are called “cladograms.”

Cladistics Analysis

The construction process of cladograms begins with choosing end taxa (singular: taxon), which are the entities to be investigated, placing them at the end of cladogram terminals, and then determining the characters that provide relationship evidence. Next, character states inherited by each taxon are identified. A character refers to a feature, and character states represent its different values, ranges, shapes, phases, etc. There are two types of character states:
  1. 1.

    Primitive, where a feature does not exist (e.g.,...

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© CIRP 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Canada Research Chair in Manufacturing SystemsIndustrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (IMS) Centre, University of WindsorONCanada
  2. 2.University of MinnesotaDuluthUSA