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A measurement of a drug’s biologic activity that substitutes for a clinical endpoint such as death or pain relief. It is a laboratory measurement of the biological activity of the drug within the body that indirectly provides information about the effect of treatment on disease stage. Surrogate marker not necessarily must have a relationship with the real treatment endpoint. Surrogate markers can take a variety of forms related to characteristics of genes, proteins, cells, or cellular processes. Surrogate markers have been proposed to shorten the time needed to evaluate a new cancer treatment or preventive intervention; surrogate endpoint.