Encyclopedia of Cancer

2011 Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Surgical Trauma and Cancer Recurrence

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5601


Surgical trauma occurs after every surgical procedure by using traumatic tools, gauzes, and by rubbing the tissue. This causes an inflammatory response during which loads of cytokines and growth factors are produced. These factors will create an outstanding environment where tumor cells can adhere and flourish into a tumor lesion. Understanding the specific mechanism of tumor cell adhesion can lead to develop specific tools to prevent local and distant recurrence in the future.


The process of cancer metastasis could be compared to an exhausting obstacle race, during which the tumor cell has to pass a series of sequential interrelated steps to become a clinically relevant lesion. In distant metastasis, the tumor cell must succeed in invasion, embolization, survival in the circulation, adhere to a distant capillary endothelium, followed by extravasation and multiplication in another organ. Locoregional tumor recurrence after intra-abdominal seeding or spill of...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.
    Balkwill F, Mantovani A (2001) Inflammation and cancer: back to Virchow? Lancet 357(9255):539–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    van Grevenstein WM, Aalbers AG, Ten Raa S et al (2007) Surgery-derived reactive oxygen species produced by polymorphonuclear leukocytes promote tumor recurrence: studies in an in vitro model. J Surg Res 140:115–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    ten Kate M, Hofland LJ, van Grevenstein WM et al (2004) Influence of proinflammatory cytokines on the adhesion of human colon carcinoma cells to lung microvascular endothelium. Int J Cancer 112(6):943–950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Meager A (1999) Cytokine regulation of cellular adhesion molecule expression in inflammation. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 10(1):27–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sugarbaker PH (1991) A perspective on clinical research strategies in carcinoma of the large bowel. World J Surg 15(5):609–616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryErasmus MCRotterdamThe Netherlands