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Pericardiotomy

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Synonyms

Pericardial drainage procedure; Subxiphoid pericardial window

Definition

A surgical opening made in the pericardial sac in order to drain pericardial fluid, exudates if infectious in nature, or blood to relieve tamponade and restore normal cardiac physiology.

A surgical procedure that entails making an opening in the pericardial sac in order to diagnose penetrating cardiac injury.

Pre-existing Condition

Cardiac tamponadeis a hemodynamic emergency requiring prompt treatment in order to avoid a fatal outcome. It can complicate a number of medical conditions and it is important therefore that practitioners are aware of its presentation, diagnosis, and management. Cardiac tamponade occurs when the intrapericardial pressure exceeds the intracardiac pressure producing progressive reduction in diastolic ventricular filling and a consequent reduction in stroke volume and cardiac output. The normal pericardial space contains 15–50 ml of fluid, but depending on the etiology of the...

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Pericardiotomy. Figure 1
Pericardiotomy. Figure 2

References

  1. Brewster SA, Thirlby RC, Snyder WH 3rd (1988) Subxiphoid pericardial window and penetrating cardiac trauma. Arch Surg 123(8):937–941

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  2. Kurimoto Y, Hase M, Nara S, Yama N, Kawaharada N, Morishita K et al (2006) Blind subxiphoid pericardiotomy for cardiac tamponade because of acute hemopericardium. J Trauma 61(3):582–585

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  3. Alcan KE, Zabetakis PM, Marino ND, Franzone AJ, Michelis MF, Bruno MS (1982) Management of acute cardiac tamponade by subxiphoid pericardiotomy. JAMA 247(8):1143–1148

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  4. Mayor-Davies JA, Britz RS (1990) Subxiphoid pericardial windows–helpful in selected cases. J Trauma 30(11):1399–1401

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  5. Moores DW, Allen KB, Faber LP, Dziuban SW, Gillman DJ, Warren WH et al (1995) Subxiphoid pericardial drainage for pericardial tamponade. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 109(3):546–551, discussion 51–52

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© 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

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Izenberg, R.A., Dicker, R. (2012). Pericardiotomy. In: Vincent, JL., Hall, J.B. (eds) Encyclopedia of Intensive Care Medicine. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-00418-6_492

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-00418-6_492

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-642-00417-9

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-642-00418-6

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