Encyclopedia of Intensive Care Medicine

2012 Edition
| Editors: Jean-Louis Vincent, Jesse B. Hall

Positive Pressure Ventilators

  • Cesare GregorettiEmail author
  • Paolo Pelosi
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-00418-6_117

Synonyms

Definition

A mechanical ventilator can be considered as a series of consecutive functions that turn an input (energy) into an output (ventilatory variable), such as pressure, flow, or volume. It can transfer energy by applying positive pressure to the airways, acting as a positive pressure ventilator, or by applying subatmospheric pressure externally to the chest, acting as a negative pressure ventilator [1, 2, 3, 4].

Characteristics

The equation of motion (Eq. 1) assumes that during a spontaneous breath the pressure applied to the respiratory system (P app) is generated only by the patient’s respiratory muscles (P musc) to overcome the elastic and resistive load of the respiratory system (Eq. 2).
$${{\rm P}_{{\rm app}} = {\rm P}_{{\rm el}} + {\rm P}_{{\rm res}}\ast}$$
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.
    Gregoretti C, Navalesi P, Tosetti I, Pelosi P (2008) How to choose an intensive care unit ventilator. In: The Buyers guide to respiratory products, ERS journals Ltd. pp 95–118Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kacmarek RM, Chipman D (2006) Basic principles of ventilator machinery. In: Tobin MJ (ed) Principles and practice of mechanical ventilation, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 53–95Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chatburn RL (2006) Classification of mechanical ventilators. In: Tobin MJ (ed) Principles and practice of mechanical ventilation, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 37–52Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kacmarek RM, Malhotra A (2006) Equipment required for home mechanical ventilation. In: Tobin MJ (ed) Principles and practice of mechanical ventilation, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 97–127Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Intensive Care Unit, Dipartimento di emergenza e accettazioneAzienda Ospedaliera CTO-CRF-ICORMATurinItaly
  2. 2.Department of Ambient, Healthy and SafetyUniversità degli Studi dell’InsubriaVareseItaly