• Hans Gerhard Vogel
Reference work entry


In the development of methods for endocrine investigation, many changes have occurred since the early period of animal investigation, in which extensive surgical procedures were used to remove endocrine organs in order to study their function by deficiency symptoms, and their active principles were replaced by organ extracts and hormone preparations of increasing purity and specificity of action. Much of the classical endocrinology has now been replaced by investigations of ever increasing sophistication and specificity. Where possible, surgical procedures are discarded and avoided. Studies are performed on intact animals with a minimum of stress and interference (noninvasive procedures). One example of early noninvasive investigation is the study of adrenal gland hormone secretion, by investigation of the urinary excretion of adrenal steroids and changes induced by specific procedures.

Where surgical procedures cannot be avoided, techniques for anesthetizing animals have...

References and Further Reading

  1. Abou-Samra AB, Jüppner H, Force T, Freeman MW, Kong XF, Schipani E, Urena P, Richards J, Bonventre JV, Potts TJ Jr, Kronenberg HM, Segre GV (1992) Expression of a common receptor for parathyroid hormone and parathyroid‐related peptide from rat osteoblast-like cells: a single receptor stimulates intracellular accumulation of both cAMP and inositol triphosphates and increases intracellular calcium. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:2732–2736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abribat T, Boulanger L, Gaudreau P (1990) Characterization of [125I-Tyr10] human growth hormone‐releasing factor (1-44)-amide binding to rat pituitary: evidence of high and low affinity classes of sites. Brain Res 528:291–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abs R, Smets G, Vauquelin G, Verhelst J, Mahler C, Verlooy J, Stevenaert A, Wouters L, Borgers M, Beckers A (1997) 125I-Tyr0-hCRH labeling characteristics of corticotropin‐releasing hormone receptors: differences between normal and adenomatous pituitary corticotrophs. Neurochem Int 30:291–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adachi K, Levine V, Halprin KM, Iizuka K, Yoshikawa K (1976) Multiple forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase in pig epidermis. Biochim Biophys Acta 429:498–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adams DD (1958) The presence of an abnormal thyroid‐stimulating hormone in the serum of some thyrotoxic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 18:699–712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Adan RA, Tiesjema B, Hillebrand JJ, la Fleur SE, Kas MJ, de Krom M (2006) The MC4 receptor and control of appetite. Br J Pharmacol 149(7):815–827PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Adan RA, van Dijk G (2006) Melanocortin receptors as drug targets for disorders of energy balance. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 5(3):251–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Adan RAH, Cone RD, Burbach JPH, Gispen WH (1994) Differential effects of melanocortin peptides on neural melanocortin receptors. Mol Pharmacol 46:1182–1190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Aguilera G, Harwood JP, Wilson JX, Morell J, Brown JH, Catt KJ (1983) Mechanism of action of corticotropin‐releasing factor and other regulators of corticotropin release in rat pituitary cells. J Biol Chem 258:8039–8045PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Aguilera G, Jessop DS, Harbuz MS, Kiss A, Lightman SL (1997) Differential regulation of hypothalamic pituitary corticotropin releasing hormone receptors during development of adjuvant‐induced arthritis in the rat. J Endocrinol 153:185–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Aiyar N, Rand K, Elshourbagy NA, Zeng Z, Adamou JE, Bergma DJ, Li Y (1996) A cDNA encoding the calcitonin gene-related peptide type 1 receptor. J Biol Chem 271:11325–11329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Akhtar FB, Marshall GR, Wickings EJ, Nieschlag E (1983) Reversible induction of azoospermia in rhesus monkeys by constant infusion of a gonadotropin‐releasing hormone agonist using osmotic minipumps. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 56:534–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ala Y, Morin D, Mahé E, Cotte N, Mouillac B, Jard S, Barberis C, Tribollet E, Dreifuss JJ, Sawyer WH, Wo N C, Chan WY, Kolodziejczyk AS, Chen LL, Manning M (1997) Properties of a new radioiodinated antagonist for human vasopressin V2 and V1a receptors. Eur J Pharmacol 331:285–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Albert A (1945) The biochemistry of the thyrotropic hormone. Ann NY Acad Sci 50:466–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Albini A, Iwamoto Y, Kleinman HK, Martin GR, Aaronson SA, Kozlowski JM, McEwan RM (1987) A rapid in vitro assay for quantitating the invasive potential of tumor cells. Cancer Res 47:3239–3245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Albrandt K, Mull E, Brady EMG, Herich J, Moore CX, Beaumont K (1993) Molecular cloning of two receptors from rat brain with high affinity for salmon calcitonin. FEBS Lett 325:225–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Albrecht W, Longauer JK, Weirich EG (1979) Wirkung von Dermatocorticoiden auf die Aktivität der hepatischen Tryptophanpyrrolase beim Meerschweinchen. Arch Dermatol Res 265:275–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Albright JD, Chan PS (1997) Recent advances in the discovery of vasopressin antagonists: peptide and nonpeptide V1a and V2 receptor antagonists. Curr Pharm Des 3:615–632Google Scholar
  19. Ali A, Thompson CF, Balkovec JM, Graham DW, Hammond ML, Quraishi N, Tata JR, Einstein M, Ge L, Harris G, Kelly TM, Mazur P, Pandit S, Santoro J, Sitlani A, Wang C, Williamson J, Miller DK, Thompson CM, Zaller DM, Forrest JM, Carballo-Jane E, Luell S (2004) Novel N-arylpyrazol[3,2-c]-based ligands for the glucocorticoid receptor: receptor binding and in vivo activity. J Med Chem 47:2441–2452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Aliapoulios MA, Goldhaber P, Munson PL (1966) Thyrocalcitonin inhibition of bone resorption induced by parathyroid hormone in tissue culture. Science 151:330–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Allan GF, Leng X, Tsai SY, Weigel NL, Edwards DP, Tsai M-J, O'Malley BW (1992) Hormone and antihormone induce distinct conformational changes which are central to steroid receptor activation. J Biol Chem 287:19513–19520Google Scholar
  22. Allen E, Doisy EA (1923) An ovarian hormone. Preliminary report on its localization, extraction and partial purification, and action in test animals. J Am Med Assoc 81:819–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Allen WM (1950) A simple method for analyzing complicated absorption curves, of use in the colorimetric determination of urinary steroids. J Clin Endocrinol 10:71–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Allenby G, Foster PMD, Sharpe RM (1991) Evaluation of changes in the secretion of immunoreactive inhibin by adult rat seminiferous tubules in vitro as an indicator of early toxicant action on spermatogenesis. Fundam Appl Toxicol 16:710–724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Allison NL, Albrightson‐Winslow CR, Brooks DP, Stassen FL, Huffman WF, Stote RM, Kinter LB (1987) Species heterogeneity and antidiuretic activity of hormone antagonists: what are the predictors? In: Gash DM, Boer GJ (eds) Vasopressin. Principles and properties. Plenum, New York, pp 207–214Google Scholar
  26. Alpermann HG, Sandow J, Vogel HG (1982) Tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen zur topischen und systemischen Wirksamkeit von Prednisolon‐17‐ethylcarbonat‐21‐propionat. Arzneimittelforschung 32:633–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Altmeyer P, Buhles N (1981) Tolerance on corticosteroids? Guinea pig epithelium as an experimental system. Arch Dermatol Res 271:3–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Altura BM, Altura BT (1984) Actions of vasopressin, oxytocin, and synthetic analogs on vascular smooth muscle. Fed Proc 43:80–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Amara SG, Arriza JI, Swanson LW, Evans RM, Rosenfeld MG (1985) Expression in brain of a messenger RNA encoding a novel neuropeptide homologous to calcitonin gene-related peptide. Science 229:1094–1097PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Amara SG, Jonas V, Rosenfeld MG, Ong ES, Evans RM (1982) Alternative RNA processing in calcitonin gene expression generates mRNAs encoding different polypeptide products. Nature (Lond) 289:240–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Amit T, Ish-Shalom S, Glaser B, Youdim MBH, Hochberg Z (1992) Growth‐hormone‐binding protein in patients with acromegaly. Horm Res 37:205–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Andersen TT, Curatolo LM, Reichert LE Jr (1983) Follitropin binding to receptors in testis: studies on the reversibility and thermodynamics of the reaction. Mol Cell Endocrinol 33:37–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Anderson BG (1954) Potency and duration of action of triiodothyronine and thyroxine in rats and mice. Endocrinology 54:659–665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Anderson JJB, Garner SC, Mar M-H, Boass A, Toverud SU, Parikh I (1990) The ovarectomized, lactating rat as an experimental model for osteopenia: calcium metabolism and bone changes. Bone Mineral 11:43–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Andersson S, Russell DW (1990) Structural and biochemical properties of cloned and expressed human and rat steroid 5α-reductases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:3640–3644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Andoh K, Kimura T, Saeki I, Tabata R, Yamazaki S, Eguchi J, Hanazuka M, Horii D, Munt PL, Davis AS, Templetom D, Algate DR, Takahashi K (1994) General pharmacological properties of human corticotropin‐releasing hormone corticorelin (human). Arzneimittelforschung 44:715–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Anselmino KJ, Pecharz RI (1935) Über die Technik der Hypophysenexstirpation bei verschiedenen Versuchstieren. Z Exp Med 93:660–665Google Scholar
  38. Antoni FA, Holmes MC, Jones MT (1983) Oxytocin as well as vasopressin potentiate ovine CRF in vitro. Peptides 4:411–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Apriletti JW, Baxter JD, Lavin TN (1988) Large scale purification of the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor from rat liver and sequence‐specific binding of the receptor to DNA. J Biol Chem 263:9409–9417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Arai K, Ohata H, Shibasaki T (1998) Non-peptidic corticotropin‐releasing hormone receptor type 1 antagonist reverses restraint stress‐induced shortening of sodium pentobarbital‐induced sleeping time of rats: evidence that an increase in arousal induced by stress in mediated through CRH receptor type 1. Neurosci Lett 255:103–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Arendt J, Deacon S, English J, Hampton S, Morgan L (1995) Melatonin and adjustment to phase shift. J Sleep Res 4:74–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Argente J, Garcia‐Segura LM, Pozo J, Chowen JA (1996) Growth hormone‐releasing peptides: clinical and basic aspects. Horm Res 46:155–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Arimura A, Debeljuk L, Schally AV (1972) Stimulation of FSH release in vivo by prolonged infusion of synthetic LH-RH. Endocrinology 91:529–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Arimura A, Saito T, Schally AV (1967) Assays for corticotropin‐releasing factor (CRF) using rats treated with morphine, chlorpromazine, dexamethasone and nembutal. Endocrinology 81:235–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Arimura A, Schally AV (1970) Progesterone suppression of LH‐releasing hormone‐induced stimulation of LH release in rats. Endocrinology 87:653–657PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Arimura A, Schally AV (1971) Augmentation of pituitary responsiveness to LH‐releasing hormone (LH-RH) by estrogen. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 136:290–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Armbruster DA, Haws LC (1990) Assay of follitropin and lutropin by fluorescence enzyme immunoassay. J Clin Lab Anal 4:170–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Arriza JL, Weinberger C, Cerelli G, Glaser TM, Handelin BL, Housman DE, Evans RM (1987) Cloning of human mineralocorticoid receptor complementary DNA: Structural and functional kinship with the glucocorticoid receptor. Science 237:268–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Aschheim S, Zondek B (1927) Hypophysenvorderlappenhormon und Ovarialhormon im Harn von Schwangeren. Klin Wochschr 6:1322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ascoli M (1981) Characterization of several clonal lines of cultured Leydig tumor cells: gonadotropin receptors and steroidogenic responses. Endocrinology 108:88–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Astroff B, Safe S (1988) Comparative antiestrogenic activities of 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 6-methyl-1,3,8‐trichlorodibenzofuran in the female rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 95:435–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Astroff B, Safe S (1991) 6-Alkyl-1,3,8‐trichlorodibenzofurans as antiestrogens in female Sprague‐Dawley rats. Toxicology 69:187–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Astwood EB (1939) An assay method for progesterone based on the decidual reaction in the rat. J Endocrinol 1:49–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Astwood EB, Bissell A (1944) Effect of thiouracil on the iodine content of the thyroid gland. Endocrinology 34:282–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Attardi B, Miklos J (1990) Rapid stimulatory effect of activin-A on messenger RNA encoding the follicle‐stimulating hormone b-subunit in pituitary cell cultures. Mol Endocrinol 4:721–726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Audinot V, Mailliet F, Lahaye‐Brasseur C, Bonnaud A, Le Gall A, Amossé C, Dromaint S, Rodriguez M, Nagel N, Galizzi JP, Malpaux B, Guillaumet G, Lesieur D, Lefoulon F, Renard P, Delagrange P, Boutin JA (2003) New selective ligands of human cloned MT1 and MT2 receptors. Naunyn‐Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 367:553–561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Augustine AJ, Oleksyszyn J (1997) Glucocorticoids inhibit degradation in bovine cartilage explants stimulated with concomitant plasminogen and interleukin‐1α. Inflamm Res 46:60–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Auletta FJ, Kelm LB (1994) Mechanisms controlling corpus luteum function in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta): inhibitory action of hCG on luteolysis induced by PGF. J Reprod Fertil 102:215–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Auletta FJ, Kelm LB, Schofield MJ (1995) Responsiveness of the corpus luteum of the rhesus monkey to gonadotrophin in vitro during spontaneous and prostaglandin F-induced luteolysis. J Reprod Fertil 103:107–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Austin CR, Bruce HM (1956) Effect of continuous oestrogen administration on oestrus, ovulation and fertilization in rats and mice. J Endocrinol 13:376–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Austin LA, Heath H 3rd (1981) Calcitonin: physiology and pathophysiology [review]. N Engl J Med 304(5):269–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ax RL, Ryan RJ (1979) FSH stimulation of 3H-glucosamine incorporation into proteoglycans by porcine granulosa cells in vitro. J Clin Endocrin Metab 49:646–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Axelrod J, Wurtman RJ (1966) The formation, metabolism and some actions of melatonin, a pineal gland substance. Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis 43:200–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Ayalon D, Farhi Y, Comaru‐Schally AM, Schally AV, Eckstein N, Vagman I, Limor R (1993) Inhibitory effect of a highly potent antagonist of LH releasing hormone (SB-7) on the pituitary‐gonadal axis in the intact and castrated rat. Neuroendocrinology 58:153–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Baba S, Paul HJ, Pollow K, Janetschek G, Jacobi GH (1981) In vivo studies on the antiandrogenic effects of cimetidine versus cyproterone acetate in rats. Prostate 2:163–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Bagutti C, Eberle AN (1993) Synthesis and biological properties of a biotinylated derivative of ACTH1-17 for MSH receptor studies. J Receptor Res 13:229–244Google Scholar
  67. Bagutti C, Stolz B, Albert R, Bruns C, Pless J, Eberle AN (1993) [111In]DTPA-labeled analogues of α-MSH for the detection of MSH receptors in vitro and in vivo. Ann NY Acad Sci 680:445–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Bale TL, Picetti R, Contarino A, Koob GF, Vale WW, Lee KF (2002) Mice deficient for both corticotropin‐releasing factor receptor 1 (CRFR1) and CRFR2 have an impaired stress response and display sexually dichotomous anxiety-like behavior. J Neurosci 22:193–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Ballock RT, Mita BC, Zhou X, Chen DH, Mink LM (1999) Expression of thyroid hormone receptor isoforms in rat growth plate cartilage in vivo. J Bone Miner Res 14:1550–1556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Bangham DR, Musset MV, Stack-Dunne MP (1962) The third international standard for corticotrophin and an international working standard for corticotrophin. Acta Endocrinol 40:552–554Google Scholar
  71. Bangham DR, National Institute for Medical Research, London (1962) The third international standard for corticotropin and an international working standard for corticotropin. Acta Endocrinol 40:552–554Google Scholar
  72. Bani D (1997) Relaxin: a pleiotropic hormone. Gen Pharmacol 28:13–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Barakat A, Rosselin G, Marie J-C (1993) Characterization of specific calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors present in hamster pancreatic β-cells. Biosci Rep 13:221–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Barberis C, Ballestre MN, Jard S, Tribollet E, Arsenijevic Y, Dreifuss JJ, Bankowski K, Manning M, Chan WY, Schlosser SS, Holsboer F, Elands J (1995) Characterization of a novel linear radioiodinated vasopressin antagonist: an excellent radioligand for vasopressin V1a receptors. Neuroendocrinology 62:135–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Bargmann W (1949) Über die neurosekretorische Verknüpfung von Hypothalamus und Neurohypophyse. Z Zellforsch Mikroskop Anat 34:610–634Google Scholar
  76. Barling PM, Bennett JH, Triffitt JT, Owen ME (1989) The adenylate cyclase response to parathyroid hormone in cultured rabbit marrow fibroblastic cells. Bone Mineral 7:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Barnes PJ (1998) Anti‐inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids. Molecular mechanisms. Clin Sci 94:557–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Barnes PJ, Adcock I (1993) Anti‐inflammatory actions of steroids: molecular mechanisms. Trends Pharmacol Sci 14:436–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Barrett P, MacDonald A, Helliwell R, Davidson G, Morgan P (1994) Cloning and expression of a new member of the melanocyte‐stimulating hormone receptor family. J Mol Endocrinol 12:203–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Barros F, Kaczorowski GJ, Katz GM, Vandlen RL, Reuben JP (1986) Application of whole-cell voltage clamp in the study of neuroendocrine cells. In: Electrophysiological techniques in pharmacology. Liss, New York, pp 149–168Google Scholar
  81. Bartmann W, Beck G, Lerch U, Teufel H, Schölkens B (1979) Luteolytic prostaglandins. Synthesis and biological activity. Prostaglandins 17:301–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Basil B, Somers GF, Woolett EA (1950) Measurement of thyroid activity by mouse anoxia method. Br J Pharmacol 5:315–322Google Scholar
  83. Bassiri RM, Dvorak J, Utiger RD (1978) Thyrotropin‐releasing hormone. In: Jaffe BM, Behrman HR (eds) Methods of hormone radioimmunoassay. Academic Press, New York, pp 45–56Google Scholar
  84. Bates RW, Cornfield J (1957) An improved assay method for thyrotropin using depletion of I131 from the thyroid of day-old chicks. Endocrinology 60:225–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Baumann JB, Girard J, Christen E, Eberle AN, Ruch W (1985) Inhibition of the ACTH adrenal response to stress by treatment with hydrocortisone, prednisolone and dexamethasone in the rat. Horm Res 21:254–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Beastall GH, Ferguson KM, O'Reilly DSTJ, Seth J (1987) Assays for follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone: guidelines for the provision of a clinical biochemistry service. Ann Clin Biochem 24:246–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Beato M, Truss M, Chávez S (1996) Control of transcription by steroid hormones. Ann NY Acad Sci 784:93–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Beckers T, Marheineke K, Reiländer H, Hilgard P (1995) Selection and stable characterization of mammalian cell lines with stable over‐expression of human pituitary receptors for gonadoliberin. Eur J Biochem 231:535–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Beckers T, Reiländer H, Hilgard P (1997) Characterization of gonadotropin‐releasing hormone analogs based on a sensitive cellular luciferase reporter gene assay. Anal Biochem 251:17–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Beers WH, Strickland S (1978) A cell culture assay for follicle‐stimulating hormone. J Biol Chem 253:3877–3881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Behan DP, De Souza EB, Lowry PJ, Potter E, Sawchenko P, Vale WW (1995) Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) binding protein: a novel regulator of CRF and related peptides. Front Neuroendocrinol 16:362–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Behar V, Nakamoto C, Greenberg Z, Bisello A, Suva LJ, Rosenblatt M, Chorev M (1996) Histidine at position 5 is the specificity “switch” between two parathyroid hormone receptor subtypes. Endocrinology 137:4217–4244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Behar V, Pines M, Nakamoto C, Greenberg Z, Bisello A, Stueckle S, Bessalle R, Usdin TB, Chorev M, Rosenblatt M, Suva L (1996a) The human PTH2 receptor: binding and signal transduction properties of the stably expressed recombinant receptor. Endocrinology 137:2748–2757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Bell IM, Erb JM, Freidinger RM, Gallicchio SN, Guare JP, Guidotti MT, Halpin RA, Hobbs DW, Homnick CF, Kuo MS, Lis EV, Mathre DJ, Michelson SR, Pawluczyk JM, Pettibone DJ, Reiss DR, Vickers S, Williams PD, Woyden CJ (1998) Development of orally active oxytocin antagonists: studies on 1-(1-(4-[1-(2-methyl-1‐oxidopyridin‐3-ylmethyl)piperidin‐4-yloxy]-2‐methoxybenzoyl)-4-yl)-1,4‐dihydrobenz[d][1,3]oxazin-2-one (L-372,662) and related pyridines. J Med Chem 41:2146–2163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Belvisis M, Wicks SL, Battram CH, Bottoms SEW, Redford JE, Woodman P, Brown TJ, Webber SE, Foster ML (2001) Therapeutic benefit of a dissociated glucocorticoid and the relevance of in vitro separation of transrepression from transactivation activity. J Immunol 166:1975–1982Google Scholar
  96. Ben-Jonathan N, Oliver C, Weiner HJ, Mical RS, Porter JC (1977) Dopamine in hypophyseal portal plasma of the rat during the estrus cycle and throughout pregnancy. Endocrinology 100:452–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Benhamou B, Garcia T, Lerouge T, Vergezac A, Gofflo D, Bigogne C, Chambon P, Gronemeyer H (1992) A single amino acid that determines the sensitivity of progesterone receptors to RU486. Science 255:206–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Benloucif S, Dubocovich ML (1996) Melatonin and light induce phase shifts of circadian rhythms in the C3H/HeN mouse. J Biol Rhythms 11:113–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Bentham J, Ohlsson C, Lindahl A, Isaksson O, Nilsson A (1993) A double‐staining technique for detection of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 binding to rat tibial epiphyseal chondrocytes. J Endocrinol 137:361–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Berde B, Cerletti A (1957) Démonstration expérimentale de l'action de l'ocytocine sur la glande mammaire. Gynaecologia 144:275–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Berde B, Cerletti A (1961) Über die antidiuretische Wirkung von synthetischem Lysin‐Vasopressin. Helv Physiol Acta 19:135–150Google Scholar
  102. Berde B, Cerletti A, Konzett H (1959) The biological activity of a series of peptides related to oxytocin. In: Caldeyro‐Barcia, Heller H (eds) Oxytocin: Intern Sympos Montevideo. Pergamon, LondonGoogle Scholar
  103. Berde B, Doepfner W, Konzett H (1957) Some pharmacological actions or four synthetic analogues of oxytocin. Br J Pharmacol 12:209–214Google Scholar
  104. Berger TS, Parandoosh Z, Perry BW, Stein RB (1992) Interaction of glucocorticoid analogues with the human glucocorticoid receptor. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 41:733–738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Bergink EW, van Meel F, Turpijn EW, van der Vies J (1983) Binding of progestagens to receptor proteins in MCF-7 cells. J Steroid Biochem 19:1563–1570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Bergman AJ, Meites J, Turner CM (1940) A comparison of methods of assay of the lactogenic hormone. Endocrinology 26:716–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Bergmann KE, Wooge CH, Carlson KE, Katzenellenbogen BS, Katzenellenbogen JA (1994) Bivalent ligands as probes for estrogen receptor action. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 49:139–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Bergwitz C, Gardella TJ, Flannery MR, Potts JT Jr, Kronenberg HM, Jüppner H (1996) Full activation of chimeric receptors by hybrids between parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Evidence for a common pattern of ligand‐receptor interaction. J Biol Chem 271:26469–26472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Bergwitz C, Jusseaume SA, Luck MD, Jüppner H, Gardella TJ (1997) Residues in the membrane‐spanning and extracellular loop regions of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-2 receptor determine signaling selectivity for PTH and PTH-related peptide. J Biol Chem 272:28861–28868PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Bhakoo HS, Katzenellenbogen B (1977) Progesterone antagonism of estradiol‐stimulated uterine `induced protein' synthesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol 8:105–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Bhargava G, Poretsky L, Denman H, Jandorek R, Miller LK (1989) Hormonally active long-term culture of human ovarian cells: initial characterization. Metabolism 38:195–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Bhatti SF, Duchateau L, Van Ham LM, De Vliegher SP, Mol JA, Rijnberk A, Kooistra HS (2006) Effects of growth hormone secretagogues on the release of adenohypophyseal hormones in young and old healthy dogs. Vet J 172(3):515–525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Biberger C, Von Angerer E (1996) 2‐Phenylindoles with sulfur containing side chains. Estrogen receptor affinity, antiestrogenic potency, and antitumor activity. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 58:31–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Biedl A (1916) Das thyreo‐parathyreo‐thymische System. In: Biedl A (ed) Innere Sekretion. Ihre physiologischen Grundlagen und ihre Bedeutung für die Pathologie. Dritte Auflage, Erster Teil. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Berlin, pp 5–405Google Scholar
  115. Biedl A (1916) Innere Sekretion. Ihre physiologischen Grundlagen und ihre Bedeutung für die Pathologie. Dritte Auflage, zweiter Teil. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Berlin, pp 111–126Google Scholar
  116. Biedl A (1916) Physiologie der Nebenniere. Exstirpationsversuche. In: Biedl A (ed) Innere Sekretion. Ihre physiologischen Grundlagen und ihre Bedeutung für die Pathologie. 3rd edn., Part I. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Berlin, pp 458–491Google Scholar
  117. Bilezikjan LM, Vale WW (1983) Glucocorticoids inhibit corticotropin‐releasing factor‐induced production of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate in cultured anterior pituitary cells. Endocrinology 113:657–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Bisello A, Nakamoto C, Rosenblatt M, Chorev M (1997) Mono- and bicyclic analogs of parathyroid hormone‐related protein. 1. Synthesis and biological studies. Biochemistry 36:3293–3299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Biskind MS, Biskind GS (1990) Development of tumors in the rat ovary after transplantation into the spleen. Historical milestone paper. Cancer J 3:113–116Google Scholar
  120. Bjorbaek C, Hollenberg AN (2002) Leptin and melanocortin signaling in the hypothalamus. Vitam Horm 65:281–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Black JW, Leff P, Shankley NP (1985) An operational model of pharmacological agonism: the effect of E/[A] curve shape on agonist dissociation constant estimation. Br J Pharmacol 84:561–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Blatchley FR, Donovan BT (1969) Luteolytic effect of prostaglandin in the guinea-pig. Nature 221:1065–1066PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Blind E, Raue F, Kienle P, Schroth J, Grauer A, Kabay A, Brügger P, Ziegler R (1993) Development and validation of an assay to measure bioactivity of human calcitonin in vitro using T47D cell membranes. Anal Biochem 212:91–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Blumenfeld Z, Ritter M, Shen-Orr Z, Shariki K, Ben-Shahar M, Haim N (1998) Inhibin A concentrations in the sera of young women during and after chemotherapy for lymphoma: correlation with ovarian toxicity. Am J Reprod Immunol 39:33–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Bockmann J, Winter C, Wittkowski W, Kreutz MR, Böckers TM (1997) Cloning and expression of a brain-derived TSH receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 238:173–1780PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Boehm M, Schiller M, Luger TA (2006) Non‐pigmentary actions of alpha‐melanocyte‐stimulating hormone–lessons from the cutaneous melanocortin system [review]. Cell Mol Biol 52(2):61–68Google Scholar
  127. Boggins J, Ryle M (1972) An in-vitro procedure for the quantitative measurement of follicle‐stimulating activity. J Endocrinol 54:355–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Boguszewski CL, Hynsjö L, Johannsson G, Bengtsson BÅ, Carlsson LMS (1996) 22-kDa growth hormone exclusion assay: a new approach to measurement of non-22?kDa growth hormone isoforms in human blood. Eur J Endocrinol 135:573–582Google Scholar
  129. Bohnsack BL, Szabo M, Kilen SM, Tam DH, Schwartz HB (2000) Follistatin suppresses steroid‐enhanced follicle‐stimulating hormone release in vitro in rats. Biol Reprod 62:636–641PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Boissonnas RA (1960) The chemistry of oxytocin and vasopressin. In: Schachter M (ed) Polypeptides which affect smooth muscles and blood vessels. Pergamon, London, pp 7–19Google Scholar
  131. Boissonnas RA, Guttmann St, Berde B, Konzett H (1961) Relationships between the chemical structures and the biological properties of the posterior pituitary hormones and their synthetic analogues. Experientia 1:377–390Google Scholar
  132. Boland NI, Humpherson PG, Leese HJ, Gosden RG (1993) Pattern of lactate production and steroidogenesis during growth and maturation of mouse ovarian follicles in vitro. Biol Reprod 48:798–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Bomskov C (1937) Biologische Methoden der Nebennierenrindenforschung. In Bomskov C (ed) Methodik der Hormonforschung, 1. Band. Thieme, Leipzig, pp 489–534Google Scholar
  134. Bomskov C (1937) Die chirurgischen Methoden der Nebennierenforschung. In: Bomskov C (ed) Methodik der Hormonforschung, Vol. 1. Thieme, Leipzig, pp 467–485Google Scholar
  135. Bomskov C (1937) Die chirurgischen Methoden der Schilddrüsenforschung In: Methodik der Hormonforschung. Band 1. Georg Thieme, Leipzig, pp 143–155 Hammet 1924, 1926a, 1926b; Smith et al. 1927; Hammet 1929; Pittman et al. 1964; Grossie 1965;Google Scholar
  136. Bomskov C (1937) Methodik der Hormonforschung. Vol 1, Das Hormon der Schilddrüse. Thieme, Leipzig, pp 143–394Google Scholar
  137. Bomskov C (1939) Chirurgische Methoden der Erforschung des Hodenhormones. Die Kastration des männlichen Säugetieres. In: Bomskov C (ed) Methodik der Hormonforschung, 2. Band. Thieme, Leipzig, pp 350–353Google Scholar
  138. Bomskov C (1939) Chirurgische Methoden der Erforschung des Hodenhormones. Die Kastration des männlichen Vogels (Ka‐paunisieren). In: Bomskov C (ed) Methodik der Hormonforschung, 2. Band. Thieme, Leipzig, pp 353–357Google Scholar
  139. Bomskov C (1939) Die Exstirpation der Hypophyse im Tierversuch. In: Methodik der Hormonfoschung. 2. Band, G. Thieme, Leipzig, pp 553–587Google Scholar
  140. Bomskov C (1939) Die Methoden der Ovarexstirpation (Kastration). In: Bomskov C (ed) Methodik der Hormonforschung, 2. Band. Thieme Verlag Leipzig, pp 9–18Google Scholar
  141. Bonne C, Raynaud JP (1974) Mode of spironolactone anti‐androgenic action: inhibition of androstanolone binding to rat prostate androgen receptor. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2:59–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Boonkasemsanti W, Aedo AR, Cekan SZ (1989) Relative affinity of various progestins and antiprogestins to a rabbit myometrium receptor. Arzneimittelforschung 39:195–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Born W, Fischer A (1993) Calcitonin gene products: molecular biology, chemistry, and actions. Handb Exp Pharmacol 107:569–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Botella J, Paris J, Lahlou B (1987) The cellular mechanism of the antiandrogenic action of nomegestrol acetate, a new 19‐norprogestagen, on the rat prostate. Acta Endocrinol 115:544–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Bourdeau A, Manganella G, Thil-Trubert CL, Sachs C, Cournot G (1990) Bioactive parathyroid hormone in pregnant rats and fetuses. Am J Physiol 258:E549–E554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Bousfield GR, Liu WK, Ward DN (1989) Effects of removal of carboxy‐terminal extension from equine luteinizing hormone (LH) β-subunit on LH and follicle‐stimulating hormone receptor‐binding activities and LH steroidogenic activity in rat testicular Leydig cells. Endocrinology 124:379–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Bouton MM, Raynaud JP (1977) Impaired nuclear translocation and regulation: a possible explanation of anti‐estrogenic activity. Res Steroids 7:127–137Google Scholar
  148. Bouton MM, Raynaud JP (1978) The relevance of kinetic parameters in the determination of specific binding to the estrogen receptor. J Steroid Biochem 9:9–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Bowers CR, Redding TW, Schally AV (1965) Effect of thyrotropin releasing factor (TRF) of ovine, bovine, porcine and human origin on thyrotropin release in vitro and in vivo. Endocrinology 77:609–616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Bowers CY, Humphries J, Wasiak T, Folkers K, Reynolds GA, Reichert LE Jr (1980) On the inhibitory effects of luteinizing hormone‐releasing hormone analogs. Endocrinology 106:674–683PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Bowers CY, Lee KL, Schally AV (1968) Effect of actinomycin D on hormones that control the release of thyrotropin from the anterior pituitary glands of mice. Endocrinology 82:303–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Bowers CY, Schally AV (1970) Assay of thyrotropin‐releasing hormone. In: Hypophysiotropic hormones of the hypothalamus: assay and chemistry. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md., pp 74–89Google Scholar
  153. Bowers CY, Schally AV, Reynolds GA, Hawley WD (1967) Interactions of L-trijodothyronine and thyrotropin‐releasing factor on the release and synthesis of thyrotropin from anterior pituitary gland of mice. Endocrinology 81:741–747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Bradbeer JN, Dunham J, Fischer JA, de Deuxchaisnes CN, Loveridge N (1988) The metatarsal cytochemical bioassay of parathyroid hormone: validation, specificity, and application to the study of pseudohypoparathyroidism type I. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67:1237–1243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Braga PC (1994) Calcitonin and its antinociceptive activity: animal and human investigations 1975–1992 [review]. Agents Actions 41(3–4):121–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Brain SD, Hughes SR, Cambridge H, O'Driscoll G (1993) The contribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) to neurogenic vasodilator responses. Agents Actions 38 [Special Issue I]:C19–C21Google Scholar
  158. Brainard GC (1978) Pineal research: the decade of transformation. J Neural Transm Suppl 3–10Google Scholar
  159. Brambaifa N (1988) Luteolytic potency of 16-phenoxy‐derivatives of prostaglandin F. Experientia 44:45–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Branham W, Zehr DR, Sheehan DM (1993) Differential sensitivity of rat uterine growth and epithelium hypertrophy to estrogens and antiestrogens. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 203:297–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Brasier AR, Tate JE, Habener JF (1989) Optimized use of the firefly luciferase assay as a reporter gene in mammalian cell lines. Bio Techniques 7:1116–1122Google Scholar
  162. Brazeau P, Ling N, Böhlen P, Esch F, Ying SY, Guillemin R (1982) Growth hormone releasing factor, somatocrinin, releases pituitary growth hormone in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:7909–7013PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Brinkmann AO (1994) Steroid hormone receptors: activators of gene transcription. J Pediatr Endocrinol 7:275–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. British Pharmacopoeia (1988) Biological assay of chorionic gonadotrophin. Appendix XIV C. HMSO, London, pp A164–A165Google Scholar
  165. British Pharmacopoeia (1988) Biological assay of menotrophin. Follicle‐stimulating activity. Appendix XIV C. HMSO, London, pp A165–A166Google Scholar
  166. British Pharmacopoeia (1988) Biological assay of menotrophin. Luteinising hormone activity. Appendix XIV C. HMSO, London, pp A165–A166Google Scholar
  167. British Pharmacopoeia (1988) Vol II. HMSO, London, pp A166–167Google Scholar
  168. British Pharmacopoeia (1988) Volume II, 1. Biological assay of calcitonin (pork). Biological assay of salcatonin. A164. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  169. British Pharmacopoeia, Vol II (1988) Biological assay of argipressin. Appendix XIV C:A172–A173. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  170. British Pharmacopoeia, Vol II (1988) Biological assay of desmopressin. Appendix XIV D:A173. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  171. British Pharmacopoeia, Vol II (1988) Biological assay of oxytocin. Appendix XIV C:A171. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  172. Brodie A (1991) Aromatase and its inhibitors – an overview. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 40:255–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Brodish A (1979) Control of ACTH secretion by corticotropin‐releasing factor(s). Vitam Horm 37:111–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Brooks JR, Baptista EM, Berman C, Ham EA, Hichens M, Johnston DBR, Primka RL, Rasmusson G, Reynolds GF, Schmitt SM, Arth GE (1981) Response of rat ventral prostate to a new and novel 5α-reductase inhibitor. Endocrinology 109:830–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Brosh N, Sternberg D, Honigswachs‐Sha'anani J, Lee BC, Shav-Tal Y, Tzehoval E, Shulman LM, Toledo J, Hacham Y, Carmi P, Jiang W, Sasse J, Horn F, Burstein Y, Zipori D (1995) The plasmacytoma growth inhibitor restrictin-P is an antagonist of interleukin 6 and interleukin 11. Identification as a stroma‐derived activin A. J Biol Chem 270:29594–29600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Broulik PD (1980) Antiandrogenic activity of cimetidine in mice. Endokrinologie 76:118–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Brown JL, Dahl KD, Chakraborty PK (1991) Effects of follicular fluid administration on serum bioactive and immunoreactive FSH concentrations and compensatory testosterone secretion in hemicastrated adult rats. J Androl 12:221–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Brown PS (1955) The assay of gonadotrophin from urine of non-pregnant human subjects. J Endocrinol 13:59–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Brown PS, Wells M (1966) Observations on the assay of human urinary follicle‐stimulating hormone by the augmentation test in mice. J Endocrinol 35:199–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Brown TR, Rothwell SW, Sultan C, Migeon CJ (1981) Inhibition of androgen binding in human foreskin fibroblasts by antiandrogens. Steroids 37:635–647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Browning C, Beresford I, Fraser N, Giles H (2000) Pharmacological characterization of human recombinant mt1 and MT2 receptors. Br J Pharmacol 129:877–886PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Bruchovsky N, Wilson JD (1968) The conversion of testosterone to 5α-androstan‐17β-ol-3-one by rat prostate in vivo and in vitro. J Biol Chem 243:2012–2021PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Bruijnzeel AW, Gold MS (2005) The role of corticotropin‐releasing factor-like peptides in cannabis, nicotine, and alcohol dependence. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 49(3):505–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Brunish R, Hayashi K, Hayashi J (1962) Purification and properties of exophthalmos‐producing substance. Arch Biochem Biophys 98:135–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Bryant‐Greenwood GD, Greenwood FC, Mercado‐Simmen R, Weiss T, Yamamoto S, Ueno M, Arakaki R (1982) Relaxin secretion and relaxin receptors: the linkages. Ann NY Acad Sci 380:100–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Buck RH, Maxl F (1990) A validated HPLC assay for salmon calcitonin analysis. Comparison of HPLC and biological assay. J Pharm Biomed Anal 8:761–769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Buckingham JC, Cover PO (1983) Biological assay of luteinizing hormone‐releasing hormone (gonadorelin). J Pharmacol Meth 9:239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Buckingham JC, Cover PO, Gillies GE (1991) Biological and radioimmunometric assay methods for the determination of corticotrophin. In: Greenstein B (ed) Neuroendocrine research methods, Vol 2. Harwood, Chur, pp 601–613Google Scholar
  189. Buhr MM, Gruber MY, Riley JCM, Carlson JC (1983) The effect of prolactin pretreatment on prostaglandin F-associated structural changes in membranes from rat corpora lutea. Am J Obstet Gynecol 145:263–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Bullesbach EE, Schwabe C (1996) The chemical synthesis of rat relaxin and the unexpectedly high potency of the synthetic hormone in the mouse. Eur J Biochem 241:533–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Burgon PG, Robertson DM, Stanton PG, Hearn MTW (1993) Immunological activities of highly purified isoforms of human FSH correlate with in vitro bioactivities. J Endocrinol 139:511–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Burn HJ, Finney DJ, Goodwin LG (1952) Biological standardization, 2nd edn, 2nd impression. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  193. Burn JH (1931) Estimation of the antidiuretic potency of pituitary (posterior lobe) extract. Q J Pharm 4:517–529Google Scholar
  194. Burn JH, Finney DJ, Goodwin LG (1952) Biological standardization. Anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 268–279Google Scholar
  195. Burnatowska‐Hledin MA, Spielman WS (1989) Vasopressin V1 receptors on the principal cells of the rabbit cortical collecting tubule. J Clin Invest 83:84–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Burris TP, Nawaz Z, Tsai M-J, O'Malley BW (1995) A nuclear hormone receptor‐associated protein that inhibits transactivation by the thyroid hormone and retinoic acid receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:9525–9529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Burt DR, Taylor RL (1983) TRH receptor binding in CNS and pituitary. In: Griffiths EC, Bennett GW (eds) Thyrotropin‐releasing hormone. Raven, New York, pp 71–83Google Scholar
  198. Burton K (1956) A study on the conditions and mechanisms of the diphenylamine reaction for the colorimetric estimation of desoxyribonucleic acid. Biochem J 62:401–437Google Scholar
  199. Bush SM, Folta S, Lannigan DA (1996) Use of the yeast one-hybrid system to screen for mutations in the ligand‐binding domain of the estrogen receptor. Steroids 61:102–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Butenandt A, Westphal U, Hohlweg W (1943) Über das Hormon des Corpus luteum. Hoppe-Seyler's Z Biol Chem 227:84–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Butler AA (2006) The melanocortin system and energy balance. Peptides 27(2):281–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Buttgereit F, Song IH, Straub RH, Burmester GR (2005) Aktueller Stand zur Entwicklung neuer Glucocortiocoidrezeptorliganden. Z Rheumatol 64:170–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Byrnes WW, Meyer RK (1951) The inhibition of gonadotrophic hormone secretion by physiological doses of estrogen. Endocrinology 48:133–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Byrnes WW, Shipley EG (1955) Guinea pig copulatory reflex in response to adrenal steroids and similar compounds. Endocrinology 57:5–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Byrnes WW, Stafford RO, Olson KJ (1953) Anti-gonadal hormone activity of 11α-hydroxyprogesterone. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 82:243–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Bänder A, Bauer F, Häussler A, Muschaweck R, Vogel G (1962) Pharmakologische Untersuchungen mit Isonikotinsäure-[3,3-di-(p-chlorphenyl)-propyl(1)]-amid (Präparat Hoechst 13217). Z Vet Med 9:693–704Google Scholar
  207. Bélanger A, Philibert D, Teutsch G (1981) Regio- and stereospecific synthesis of 11β-substituted 19‐norsteroids. Steroids 37:361–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Bøler J, Enzmann F, Folkers K (1969) The identity of chemical and hormonal properties of the thyrotropin releasing hormone and pyroglutamyl‐histidyl‐proline amide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 37:705–710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Bülbring E (1937) The standardization of cortical extracts by the use of drakes. J Physiol (Lond) 89:64–80Google Scholar
  210. Büllesbach EE, Schwabe C (1988) On the receptor binding site of relaxin. Int J Peptide Protein Res 32:361–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Büllesbach EE, Schwabe C (1993) Mouse relaxin: synthesis and biological activity of the first relaxin with an unusual cross-linking pattern. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 196:311–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Büllesbach EE, Yang S, Schwabe C (1992) The receptor binding site of human relaxin II. A dual prong-binding mechanism. J Biol Chem 267:22957–22960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Cadieux A, Monast NP, Pomerleau F, Fournier A, Lanoue C (1999) Bronchoprotector properties of calcitonin gene-related peptide in guinea pig and human airways: effect of pulmonary inflammation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 159:235–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Cai M, Mayorov AV, Ying J, Stankova M, Trivedi D, Cabello C, Hruby VJ (2005) Design of novel melanotropin agonists and antagonists with high potency and selectivity for human melanocortin receptors. Peptides 26(8):1481–1485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Calvo FO, Keutmann HT, Bergert ER, Ryan RJ (1986) Deglycosylated human follitropin: characterization and effects on adenosine cyclic 3′,5′-phosphate production in porcine granulosa cells. Biochemistry 25:3938–3943PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Campbell RM, Lee Y, Rivier J, Reimer EP, Felix AM, Mowles TF (1991) GRF analogs and fragments: correlation between receptor binding and structure. Peptides 12:569–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Canova-Davis E, Baldonado IP, Teshima GM (1990) Characterization of chemically synthesized human relaxin by high‐performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 508:81–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Cantrill HL, Palmberg PF, Zink HA, Waltman SR, Podos SM, Becker B (1975) Comparison of in vitro potency of corticosteroids with ability to raise intraocular pressure. Am J Ophthalmol 79:1012–1017PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Cao L, Chan WY (1993) Effects of oxytocin and luteal prostaglandins on the functional regression of the corpus luteum in pseudopregnant rats. J Reprod Fertil 99:181–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Capen CC, Rosol TJ (1989) Recent advances in the structure and function of the parathyroid gland in animals and the effect of xenobiotics. Toxicol Pathol 17:333–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Carbajo P, Christensen K, Edwards DP, Skafar DF (1996) Binding of [3H]progesterone to the human progesterone receptors: differences between individual and mixed isoforms. Endocrinology 137:2339–2346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Carballo-Jane E, Pandit S, Santoro JC, Freund C, Luell S, Harris G, Forrest MJ, Sitlani A (2004) Skeletal muscle: a dual system to measure glucocorticoid‐dependent transactivation and transrepression of gene regulation. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 88:191–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Carmignac D, Gabrielsson BG, Robinson ICAF (1993) Growth hormone binding protein in the rat: effects of gonadal steroids. Endocrinology 133:2445–2452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Carmignac D, Well T, Carlsson L, Clark RG, Robinson ICAF (1992) Growth hormone (GH)-binding protein in normal and GH‐deficient dwarf rats. J Endocrinol 135:447–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Carnazzi E, Aumelas A, Phalipou S, Mouillac B, Guillon G, Barberis C, Seyer R (1997) Efficient photoaffinity labeling of the rat V1a vasopressin receptor using a linear azidopeptidic antagonist. Eur J Biochem 247:906–913PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Carrick TA, Bingham B, Eppler CM, Baumbach WR, Zysk JR (1995) A rapid and sensitive binding assay for growth hormone releasing factor. Endocrinology 136:4701–4704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Carroll RS, Corrigan AZ, Vale W, Chin WW (1991) Activin stabilizes follicle‐stimulating hormone-beta messenger ribonucleic acid levels. Endocrinology 129:1721–1726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Carson‐Jurica MA, Schrader WR, O'Malley BW (1990) Steroid receptor family: structure and functions. Endocr Rev 11:201–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Castagiola A, Swillens S, Niccoli P, Dumont JE, Vassart G, Ludgate M (1992) Binding assay for thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies using the recombinant receptor protein. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 75:1540–1544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Castellucci A, Maggi CA, Evangelista S (1993) Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)1 receptor mediates vasodilation in the rat isolated and perfused kidney. Life Sci 53:PL153–PL158Google Scholar
  231. Castro MG, Morrison E, Perone MJ, Brown OA, Murray CA, Ahmed I, Perkins AV, Europe‐Finner G, Lowenstein PR, Linton EA (1996) Corticotropin‐releasing hormone receptor type 1: generation and characterization of polyclonal antipeptide antibodies and their localization in pituitary cells and cortical neurones in vitro. J Neuroendocrinol 8:521–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Catania A, Colombo G, Rossi C, Carlin A, Sordi A, Lonati C, Turcatti F, Leonardi P, Grieco P, Gatti S (2006) Antimicrobial properties of alpha-MSH and related synthetic melanocortins. Sci World J 6:1241–1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Cato ACB, Miksicek R, Schütz G, Arnemann J, Beato M (1986) The hormone regulatory element of mouse mammary tumor virus mediates progesterone induction. EMBO J 6:2237–2240Google Scholar
  234. Catt KJ, Dufau ML, Tsuruhara T (1972) Radioligand‐receptor assay of luteinizing hormone and chorionic gonadotropin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 34:123–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Catt KJ, Harwood JP, Clayton RN, Davies TF, Chan V, Katikineni M, Nozu K, Dufau ML (1980) Regulation of peptide hormone receptors and gonadal steroidogenesis. Recent Prog Horm Res 36:557–662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Catt KJ, Ketelslegers JM, Dufau ML (1976) Receptors for gonadotropic hormones. In: Blecher M (ed) Methods in receptor research. Part I. Dekker, New York, pp 175–250Google Scholar
  237. Celis ME, Taleisnik S, Walter R (1971) Regulation of formation and proposed structure of the factor inhibiting the release of melanocyte‐stimulating hormone. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 68:1428–1433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Chambers DJ, Dunham J, Zanelli JM, Parsons JA, Bitensky L, Chayen J (1978) A sensitive bioassay of parathyroid hormone in plasma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxford) 9:375–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Champion HC, Akers DL, Santiago JA, Lambert DG, McNamara DB, Kadowitz PJ (1997) Analysis of the responses to human synthetic adrenomedullin and calcitonin gene-related peptides in the hindlimb vascular bed of the cat. Mol Cell Biochem 176:5–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Chan WY, Wo NC, Cheng LL, Manning M (1996) Isosteric substitution of Asn5 in antagonists of oxytocin and vasopressin leads to highly selective and potent oxytocin and V1a receptor antagonists: new approaches for the design of potential tocolytics for preterm labor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 277:999–1003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Chan WY, Wo NC, Stoev ST, Cheng LL, Manning M (2000) Discovery and design of novel and selective vasopressin and oxytocin agonists and antagonists: the role of bioassays. Exp Physiol 85 [Spec No]:7S–18SGoogle Scholar
  242. Chander AK, McCague R, Luqmani Y, Newton C, Dowsett M, Jarman M, Coombes RC (1991) Pyrrolidino‐4‐iodotamoxifen and 4‐iodotamoxifen, new analogues of the antiestrogen tamoxifen for the treatment of breast cancer. Cancer Res 51:5851–5858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Chang C, Kokontis J, Liao S (1988) Molecular cloning of human and rat androgen complementary cDNA encoding androgen receptors. Science 240:324–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Chang C, Saltzman A, Yeh S, Young W, Keller E, Lee HJ, Wang C, Mizokami A (1995) Androgen receptor: an overview. Crit Rev Eukaryotic Gene Expression 5:97–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Charton I, Mamai A, Bennejean C, Renard P, Delagrange P, Morgan PJ, Howell HE, Gourdel‐Martin ME, Viaud MC, Guillaumet G (2000a) Synthesis and biological activity of new melatonin receptor ligands. Pharm Pharmacol Commun 6:49–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Charton I, Mamai A, Bennejean C, Renard P, Howell HE, Guardiola-Lamaître B, Delagrange P, Morgan PJ, Viaud MC, Guillaumet G (2000b) Substituted oxygenated heterocycles and thio‐analogues: synthesis and biological evaluation as melatonin ligands. Bioorg Med Chem 8:105–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Chatterjee A (1973) Possible mode of action of prostaglandins: differential effects of prostaglandin F before and after the establishment of placental physiology in pregnant rats. Prostaglandins 3:189–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Chatzaki E, Minas V, Zoumakis E, Makrigiannakis A (2006) CRF receptor antagonists: utility in research and clinical practice. Curr Med Chem 13(23):2751–2760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Chatzipantelli K, Goldberg RB, Howard GA, Roos BA (1996) Calcitonin gene-related peptide is an adipose‐tissue neuropeptide with lipolytic actions. Endocrinol Metab 3:235–242Google Scholar
  250. Chayen J, Daly JR, Loveridge N, Bitensky L (1976) The cytochemical bioassay of hormones. Recent Prog Horm Res 32:33–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Chen C, Dagnino R, De Souza EB, Grigoriadis DE, Huang CQ, Kim KI, Liu Z, Moran T, Webb TR, Whitten JP, Xie YF, McCarthy JR (1996) Design and synthesis of a series of non-peptide high-affinity human corticotropin‐releasing factor receptor antagonists. J Med Chem 399:4358–4360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Chen HC, Shimohigashi Y, Dufau ML, Catt KJ (1992) Characterization and biological properties of chemically deglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin. J Biol Chem 257:14446–14452Google Scholar
  253. Chen R, Lewis KA, Perrin MH, Vale WW (1993) Expression cloning of a human corticotropin‐releasing‐factor receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:8967–8971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Chen W, Bahl OP (1993) High expression of the hormone binding active extracellular domain (1–294) of rat lutropin receptor in Escherichia coli. Mol Cell Endocrinol 91:35–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Cheng CK, Leung PC (2005) Molecular biology of gonadotropin‐releasing hormone (GnRH)-I, GnRH-II, and their receptors in humans. Endocr Rev 26(2):283–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Cheng K, Chan WWS, Butler B, Wie L, Smith RG (1993) A novel non-peptidyl growth hormone secretagogue. Horm Res 40:109–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Cheng KW (1975) A radioreceptor assay for follicle‐stimulating hormone. J Clin Endocrin Metab 41:581–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Chesney AM, Clawson TA, Mebster B (1928) Endemic goiter in rabbits. Incidence and characteristics. Bull Hopkins Hosp 43:261–277Google Scholar
  259. Chhajlani V, Muceniece R, Wikberg JES (1993) Molecular cloning of a novel human melanocortin receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 195:866–873PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Chhajlani V, Wikberg JES (1992) Molecular cloning of a novel human melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor cDNA. FEBS Lett 309:417–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Chiellini G, Apriletti JW, Yoshikara HA, Baxter JD, Ribeiro RCJ, Scalan TS (1998) A high-affinity subtype‐selective agonist ligand for the thyroid hormone receptor. Chem Biol 5:299–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Ching M (1982) Correlative surges of LHRH, LH and FSH in pituitary stalk plasma and systemic plasma of rat during proestrus. Effects of anesthetics. Neuroendocrinology 34:279–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Chochinov RH, Daughaday WH (1978) Somatomedin A, Somatomedin C and NSILA-s. In: Jaffe BM, Behrman HR (eds) Methods of hormone radioimmunoassay. Academic Press, New York, pp 959–977Google Scholar
  264. Chomczynski P, Saachi N (1987) Single step method for RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate‐phenol‐chloroform extraction. Anal Biochem 162:156–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Christiansen P (1972a) Studies on the rat ovarian augmentation method for follicle stimulating hormone. Acta Endocrinol 70:636–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Christiansen P (1972b) The rat ovarian augmentation method for follicle stimulating hormone. Specificity of the test. Acta Endocrinol (Kbh) 70:647–653Google Scholar
  267. Christiansen RG, Bell MR, D'Ambra TE, Mallamo JP, Herrmann JL, Ackerman JH, Opalka CJ, Kullnig RK, Winneker RC, Snyder BW, Batzold FH, Schane HP (1990) Antiandrogenic steroidal sulfonylpyrazoles. J Med Chem 33:2094–2100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Chu S, Nishi Y, Yanase T, Nawata H, Fuller PJ (2004) Transrepression of estrogen receptor β signaling by nuclear factor-κB in ovarian granulosa cells. Mol Endocrinol 18:1919–1928PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Chwalisz K (1994) The use of progesterone antagonists for cervical ripening and as adjunct to labor and delivery. Human Reprod 9:131–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Chwalisz K, Hegele‐Hartung C, Schulz R, Qing SS, Louton PT, Elger W (1991) Progesterone control of cervical ripening – experimental studies with the progesterone antagonists onapristone, lilopristone and mefipristone. In: Leppert PC, Woessner JF (eds) The extracellular matrix of the uterus, cervix and fetal membranes: synthesis, degradation and hormonal regulation. Perinatology, Ithaca, New York, pp 119–131Google Scholar
  271. Claire M, Faraj H, Grassy G, Aumelas A, Rondot A, Auzou G (1993) Synthesis of new 11β-substituted spironolactone derivatives. Relationship with affinity for mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors. J Med Chem 36:2404–2407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Clark JH, Peck J Jr, Anderson JN (1976) Estrogen‐receptor binding: relationship to estrogen‐induced responses. J Toxicol Environ Health 1:561–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Clark JH, Williams M, Upchurch S, Eriksson H, Helton E, Markaverich BM (1982) Effects of estradiol‐17α on nuclear occupancy of the estrogen receptor, stimulation of nuclear type II sites and uterine growth. J Steroid Biochem 16:323–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Clauberg C (1930a) Der biologische Test für das Corpus luteum‐Hormon. Klin Wschr 9:2004–2005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Clauberg C (1930b) Das Hormon des Corpus luteum. Zentralbl Gynäkol 54:7–19Google Scholar
  276. Clauberg C (1930c) Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Frage eines Mäusetestes für das Hormon des Corpus luteum. Zentralbl Gynäkol 54:1154–1164Google Scholar
  277. Clauberg C (1930d) Zur Physiologie und Pathologie der Sexualhormone, im besonderen des Hormons des Corpus luteum. 1. Mitteilung: Der biologische Test für das Luteohormon (das spezifische Hormon des Corpus luteum) am infantilen Kaninchen. Zentralbl Gynäkol 54:2757–2770Google Scholar
  278. Clement M, Hehir M, Phillips H, du Vivier A (1983) The effect on epidermal DNA synthesis of a combination of topical steroid with either dithranol or tar as used for psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 109:327–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Clementi G, Amico-Roxas M, Caruso A, Cutuli VMC, Maugeri S, Prato A (1993) Protective effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide in different experimental models of gastric ulcers. Eur J Pharmacol 238:101–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Clementi G, Amico-Roxas M, Caruso A, Cutuli VMC, Prato A, Maugeri S, de Bernardis E, Scapagnini U (1994b) Effects of CGRP in different models of mouse ear inflammation. Life Sci 54:119–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Clementi G, Caruso A, Prato A, De Bernardis E, Fiore CE, Amico-Roxas M (1994a) A role of nitric oxide in the anti-ulcer activity of calcitonin gene-related peptide. Eur J Pharmacol 256:R7–R8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Coghlan MJ, Jacobson PB, Lane B, Nakane M, Lin CW, Elmore SW, Kym PR, Luly JR, Carter GW, Turner R, Tyree CM, Hu J, Elgort M, Rosen J, Miner JN (2003) A novel anti‐inflammatory maintains glucocorticoid efficacy with reduced side effects. Mol Endocrinol 17:860–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Cole ES, Lee K, Lauziere K et al (1993) Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone: development of a biotechnology product for detection of metastatic lesions of thyroid carcinoma. Biotechnology 11:1014–1024PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Collins DC (1994) Sex hormone receptor binding, progestin selectivity, and the new oral contraceptives. Am J Obstet Gynecol 170:1508–1513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Collins EJ, Baker VF (1960) Growth hormone and radiosulfate incorporation: I. A new assay method for growth hormone. Metabolism 9:556–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Collip JB, Clark EP (1925) Further studies on the physiological action of a parathyroid hormone. J Biol Chem 64:485–507Google Scholar
  287. Collip JB, Selye H, Thompson DL (1933a) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Physiologie des Gehirnanhanges. Virchows Arch 290:23–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Collip JB, Selye H, Thompson DL (1933b) Gonad‐stimulating hormones in hypophysectomised animals. Nature 131:56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Colson AO, Gershengorn MC (2006) Thyrotropin‐releasing hormone analogs. Mini Rev Med Chem 6(2):221–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Combarnous Y, Guillou F, Martinat N (1984) Comparison of in vitro follicle‐stimulating hormone (FSH) activity of equine gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone, FSH, and chorionic gonadotropin) in male and female rats. Endocrinology 115:1821–1827PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Cone RD (2006) Studies on the physiological functions of the melanocortin system. Endocr Rev 27(7):736–749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Cone RD, Lu D, Koppula S, Vage DI, Klungland H, Boston B, Chen W, Orth DN, Pouton C, Kesterson RA (1996) The melanocortin receptors: agonists, antagonists, and the hormonal control of pigmentation. Recent Prog Horm Res 51:287–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Conn PM, Staley D, Harris C, Andrews WV, Gorospe WC, McArdle CA, Huckle WL, Hansen J (1986) Mechanism of action of gonadotropin releasing hormone. Annu Rev Physiol 48:495–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Contarino A, Heinrichs SC, Gold LH (1999) Understanding corticotropin releasing factor neurobiology: contributions from mutant mice. Neuropeptides 33(1):1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Conway S, Canning SH, Howell HE, Mowat ES, Barrett P, Drew JE, Delagrange P, Lesieur D, Morgan PJ (2000) Characterization of human melatonin mt1 and MT2 receptors by CRE‐luciferase reporter assay. Eur J Pharmacol 390:15–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Cook CA, Wani MC, Lee YW, Fail PA, Petrow V (1992) Reversal of activity profile in analogs of the antiprogestin RU 486: effect of a 16α-substituent on progestional (agonist) activity. Life Sci 52:155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Cook CE, Lee YW, Wani MC, Fail PA, Petrow V (1994) Effects of D-ring substituents on antiprogestational (antagonist) and progestational (agonist) activity of 11β-aryl steroids. Human Reprod 9 [Suppl 1]:32–39Google Scholar
  298. Coon JM (1939) A new method for the assay of posterior pituitary extracts. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 62:79–99Google Scholar
  299. Copp DH (1964) Parathyroids, calcitonin, and control of plasma calcium. Recent Prog Horm Res 20:59–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Copp DH (1994) Calcitonin: discovery, development, and clinical application. Clin Invest Med 17:268–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Copp DH, Cameron EC, Cheney BA, Davidson AFG, Henze KG (1962) Evidence for calcitonin – a new hormone from the parathyroid that lowers calcium. Endocrinology 70:638–649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Corbin A, Beattie CW (1975) Inhibition of the pre‐ovulatory proestrus gonadotropin surge, ovulation and pregnancy with a peptide analogue of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone. Endocr Res Commun 2:1–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Cortright DN, Goosens KA, Lesh JS, Seasholtz AF (1997) Isolation and characterization of the rat corticotropin‐releasing hormone (CRH)-binding protein gene: transcriptional regulation by cyclic adenosine monophosphate and CRH. Endocrinology 138:2098–2108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Cortright DN, Nicoletti A, Seasholtz AF (1995) Molecular and biochemical characterization of the mouse brain corticotropin‐releasing hormone‐binding protein. Mol Cell Endocrinol 111:147–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Corvol P, Michaud A, Menard J, Freifeld M, Mahoudeau J (1975) Antiandrogenic effect of spirolactones: mechanism of action. Endocrinology 97:52–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Coulson CC, Thorp Jr JM, Mayer DC, Cefalo RC (1996) Central hemodynamic effects of recombinant human relaxin in the isolated, perfused rat heart model. Obstet Gynecol 87:610–612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Cousins SW, Rosenbaum JT, Guss RB, Egbert PR (1982) Ocular albumin fluorophotometric quantitation of endotoxin‐induced vascular permeability. Infect Immun 36:730–736PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Cowei AT, Forsyth IA (1935) Biology of prolactin. Pharmacol Ther 1:437–457Google Scholar
  309. Cowell M, Cover PO, Gillies GE, Buckinham JC (1991) In vitro models for the examination of the mechanisms controlling the secretion of hypothalamic hormones. In: Greenstein B (ed) Neuroendocrine research methods, Vol 1, Harwood Academic, Chur, pp 111–130Google Scholar
  310. Croiset G, Nijsen MJ, Kamphuis PJ (2000) Role of corticotropin‐releasing factor, vasopressin and the autonomic nervous system in learning and memory. Eur J Pharmacol 405(1–3):225–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Csernus VJ, Schally AV (1991) The dispersed cell superfusion system. In: Greenstein B (ed) Neuroendocrine research methods, Vol 1. Harwood Academic, Chur, pp 71–109Google Scholar
  312. Csernus VJ, Schally AV (1992) Evaluation of luteinizing hormone‐releasing hormone antagonistic activity in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:5759–5763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Cutler GB Jr, Pita JC Jr, Rifka SM, Menard RH, Sauer MA, Loriaux DL (1978) SC 25152: a potent mineralocorticoid antagonist with reduced affinity for the 5α-dihydrotestosterone receptor of human and rat prostate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 447:171–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Cutler GB Jr, Sauer MA, Lorioux DL (1979) SC 25152: a potent mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist with decreased antiandrogenic activity relative to spironolactone. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 209:144–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. Czernus V, Schally AV (1991) The dispersed cell superfusion system. In: Greenstein B (ed) Neuroendocrine research methods. Harwood Academic, London, pp 66–102Google Scholar
  316. D'Albora H, Cassina MP, Barreiro JP, Sapiro R, Domínguez R (1992) Differences in follicular growth and ovulation ability in the autografted right and left ovary of hemiovarectomised prepubertal rats. Med Sci Res 20:755–757Google Scholar
  317. Daane TA, Parlow AF (1971) Periovulatory patterns of rat serum follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone during the normal estrous cycle: effects of pentobarbital. Endocrinology 88:653–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Dahl KD, Papkoff H, Hsueh AJW (1989) Effects of diverse mammalian and nonmammalian gonadotropins in a rat granulosa cell bioassay for follicle‐stimulating hormone. Gen Comp Endocrinol 73:368–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Dahl KD, Sarkissian A (1993) Validation of an improved in vitro bioassay to measure LH in diverse species. J Androl 14:124–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Dahl KD, Stone MP (1991) FSH isoforms, radioimmunoassays, bioassays, and their significance. J Androl 13:11–22Google Scholar
  321. Dahte M, Fabian H, Gast K, Zirwr D, Winter R, Beyermann M, Schumann M, Bienert M (1996) Conformational differences of ovine and human corticotropin releasing hormone: a CD, IR, NMR and dynamic light scattering study. Int J Peptide Protein Res 47:383–393Google Scholar
  322. Dale H, Laidlaw J (1912) A method for standardising pituitary (infundibular) extracts. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 4:73–95Google Scholar
  323. Dalkin AC, Haisenleder DJ, Yasin M, Gilrain JT, Marshall JC (1996) Pituitary activin receptor subtypes and follistatin gene expression in female rats: differential regulation by activin and follistatin. Endocrinology 137:548–554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Danilolos A, Lerner AB, Lerner MR (1990) Action of light on frog pigment cells in culture. Pigment Cell Res 3:38–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Danz BJ (1995) The effects of a gonadotropin‐releasing hormone antagonist on androgen‐binding protein distribution and other parameters in the adult male rat. Endocrinology 136:4004–4011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Dattani MT, Hindmarsh PC, Brook CGD, Robinson ICAF, Kopchick JJ, Marshall NJ (1995) G120R, a human growth hormone antagonist, shows zinc‐dependent agonist and antagonist activity on Nb2 cells. J Biol Chem 270:9222–9226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Dattani MT, Hindmarsh PC, Brook CGD, Robinson ICAF, Weir T, Marshall NJ (1993) Enhancement of growth hormone bioactivity by zinc in the eluted stain assay system. Endocrinology 1993:2803–2808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Daughaday WH, Peake GT, Machlin LJ (1970) Assay of growth hormone releasing factor. In: Hypophysiotropic hormones of the hypothalamus: assay and chemistry. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md., pp 151–170Google Scholar
  329. Dautzenberg FM, Hauger RL (2002) The CRF peptide family and their receptors: yet more partners discovered. Trends Pharmacol Sci 22:71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Davies BMA, Gordon AH (1953) The effect of parathyroid hormone on phosphate excretion in the rat. J Endocrinol 9:292–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Davies BMA, Gordon AH, Mussett MV (1954) A plasma calcium assay for parathyroid hormone, using parathyroidectomized rats. J Physiol (Lond) 125:383–395Google Scholar
  332. Davioud E, Fagart J, Souque A, Rafestin-Oblin ME, Marquet A (1996) New steroidal diazo ketones as potential photoaffinity labelling reagents for the mineralocorticoid receptor: synthesis and biological activities. J Med Chem 39:2860–2864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. De Felice M, Postiglione MP, Di Lauro R (2004) Minireview: thyrotropin receptor signaling in development and differentiation of the thyroid gland: insights from mouse models and human diseases. Endocrinology 145(9):4062–4027PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. De Gasparo M, Joss U, Ramjoué HP, Whitebread SE, Haenni H, Schenkel L, Kraehenbühl C, Biollaz M, Grob J, Schmidlin J, Wieland P, Wehrli HU (1987) Three new epoxy‐spironolactone derivatives: characterization in vivo and in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 240:650–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. De Haij S, Adcock JM, Bakker AC, Gobin SJP, Daha MR, van Kooten C (2003) Steroid responsiveness of renal epithelial cells. Dissociation of transrepression and transactivation. J Biol Chem 278:5091–5098PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. De Kretser DM, Robertson DM (1989) The isolation and physiology of inhibin and related proteins. Biol Reprod 40:33–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. De Paolo LV (1997) Inhibins, activins, follistatins: the saga continues. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 214:328–339Google Scholar
  338. De Souza EB (1995) Corticotropin‐releasing factor receptors: physiology, pharmacology, biochemistry and role in central nervous system and immune disorders. Psychoneuroendocrinology 20(8):789–819PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. De Souza EB, Grigoriadis DE, Vale WW (1998) Corticotropin‐releasing factor receptors. In: Girdlestone D (ed) The IUPHAR compendium of receptor characterization and classification. IUPHAR Media, London, pp 134–138Google Scholar
  340. De Winter JP, Timmermann MA, Vanderstichele HMJ, Klaij IA, Grootenhuis AJ, Rommerts FFG, de Jong FH (1992) Testicular Leydig cells in vitro secrete only inhibin α-subunits, whereas Leydig cell tumors can secrete bioactive inhibin. Mol Cell Endocrinol 83:105–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. De Winter JP, ten Dijke P, de Vries CJM, van Achterberg TAE, Sugino H, de Waele P, Huylebroeck D, Verschueren K, van den Eijnden-van Raaij AJM (1996) Follistatins neutralize activin bioactivity by inhibition of activin binding to its type II receptors. Mol Cell Endocrinol 116:105–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. De la Cruz A, Coy DH, Schally AV, Coy EJ, de la Cruz KG, Arimura A (1975) Blockade of the pre‐ovulatory LH surge in hamsters by an inhibitory analog of LH-RH (38855). Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 149:576–579Google Scholar
  343. de la Peña P, Delgado LM, del Camino D, Barros F (1992) Two isoforms of the thyrotropin‐releasing hormone receptor generated by alternative splicing have indistinguishable functional properties. J Biol Chem 267:23703–23708Google Scholar
  344. DeBoer MD, Marks DL (2006b) Therapy insight: use of melanocortin antagonists in the treatment of cachexia in chronic disease. Natl Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 2(8):459–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. DePaolo LV, Shimonaka M, Schwall RH, Ling N (1991) In vivo comparison of the follicle‐stimulating hormone‐suppressing activity of follistatin and inhibin in ovariectomized rats. Endocrinology 128:668–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. DeWet JR, Wood KV, deLucca M, Helinski DR, Subramani S (1987) Firefly luciferase gene: structure and expression in mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biol 7:725–737Google Scholar
  347. Dean DD, Woessner JF Jr (1985) A sensitive specific assay for tissue collagenase using telopeptide-free 3H-acetylated collagen. Anal Biochem 148:174–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. Dean HJ, Friesen HG (1986) Growth hormone therapy in Canada: end of one era and beginning of another. Can Med Assoc J 135(4):297–301Google Scholar
  349. Debeljuk L, Maines VM, Coy DH, Schally AV (1983) Effect of a powerful antagonist of LH-RH on testicular function in prepubertal male rats. Arch Androl 11:89–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. Deboer MD, Marks DL (2006a) Cachexia: lessons from melanocortin antagonism. Trends Endocrinol Metab 17(5):199–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. Deckers GHJ, DeGraaf JH, Kloosterboer HJ, Loozen HJJ (1992) Properties of a potent LHRH antagonist (ORG 30850) in female and male rats. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 42:705–712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. Deftos LJ (1989) In: Azria M (ed) The calcitonins. Physiology and pharmacology. Karger, Basel, pp 67–132Google Scholar
  353. Deghenghi R, Boutignon F, Wüthrich P, Lenaerts V (1993) Antarelix (EP 24332) a novel water soluble LHRH antagonist. Biomed Pharmacother 47:107–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Dekansky J (1952) The quantitative assay of vasopressin. Br J Pharmacol 7:567–572Google Scholar
  355. Del Angel Meza AR, Beas-Zárate C, Alfaro FL, Morales‐Villagran A (1991) A simple biological assay for relaxin measurement. Comp Biochem Physiol 99?C:35–39Google Scholar
  356. Delagrange P, Ting KN, Kopp C, Lahaye C, Lesieur D, Weibel L, Bennejean C, Renard R, Retton MC (1999) In vitro and in vivo antagonist properties of S 22153, a new melatonin ligand. Fundament Clin Pharmacol 13:253Google Scholar
  357. Della-Fera MA, Baile CA (2005) Roles for melanocortins and leptin in adipose tissue apoptosis and fat deposition. Peptides 26(10):1782–1787PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. Deming Q, Genquan S, Ruolun K (1994) Biological assay of calcitonin by blood calcium determination in rats. Chin J Pharm Anal 14:30–34Google Scholar
  359. Demura R, Suzuki T, Tajima S, Kubo O, Yoshimoto T, Demura H (1996) Inhibin α, βA and βB subunit messenger ribonucleic acid levels in cultured rat pituitary: studies by a quantitative RT-PCR. Endocr J 43:403–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Demura R, Suzuki T, Tajima S, Mitsuhashi S, Odagiri E, Demura H (1993) Activin and inhibin secretion by cultured porcine granulosa cells is stimulated by FSH and LH. Endocr J 40:447–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Dennis T, Fournier A, Guard S, St. Pierre S, Quirion R (1991) Calcitonin gene-related peptide (hCGRP alpha) binding sites in nucleus accumbens. Atypical structural requirements and marked phylogenetic differences. Brain Res 539:59–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. Dennis T, Fournier A, St. Pierre S, Quirion R (1989) Structure‐activity profile of calcitonin gene-related peptide in peripheral and brain tissues. Evidence for receptor multiplicity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 251:718–725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. Depreux P, Lesieur D, Mansour HA, Morgan P, Howell HE, Renard P, Caignard DH, Pfeiffer B, Delagrange P, Guardiola B, Yous S, Demarque A, Adam G, Andrieux J (1994) Synthesis and structure‐activity relationships of novel naphthalenic and bioisosteric related amidic derivatives as melatonin receptor ligands. J Med Chem 37:3231–3239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. der Kinderen PJ, Houtstra-Lanz M, Schwarz F (1960) Exophthalmos‐producing substance in human serum. J Clin Endocrin Metab 20:712–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. Desarnaud F, Labbe O, Eggerickx D, Vassart G, Parmentier M (1994) Molecular cloning, functional expression and pharmacological characterization of a mouse melanocortin receptor gene. Biochem J 299:367–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. Desclin L (1959) Action du benzoate d'oestradiol et du propionate de testostérone sur la structure de l'ovaire implanté dans la rate. Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 20:222–227Google Scholar
  367. Dettelbach HR (1958) A method for assaying small amounts of antidiuretic substances with notes on some properties of vasopressin. Am J Physiol 192:379–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. Deutsches Arzneibuch (1986) 9. Ausgabe, V.2.2.2. Deutscher Apotheker, Stuttgart, p 49Google Scholar
  369. Dhar JD, Dwivedi A, Srivastava A, Setty BS (1994) Structure activity relationship of some 2,3-diaryl-2H-1‐benzopyrans to their anti‐implantation, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in the rat. Contraception 49:609–616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. Di Blasio AM, Giraldi FP, Vigano P, Petraglia F, Vignali M, Cavagnini F (1997) Expression of corticotropin‐releasing hormone and its R1 receptor in human endometrial stroma cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:1594–1597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. Di Cerbo A, Corda D (1999) Signaling pathways involved in thyroid hyperfunction and growth in Graves' disease. Biochimie 81(5):415–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Di Lorenzo D, Albertini A, Zava D (1991) Progestin regulation of alkaline phosphatase in the human breast cancer cell line T47D. Cancer Res 51:4470–4475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  373. Di Lorenzo D, Gianni M, Savoldi GF, Ferrari F, Albertini A, Garattini E (1993) Progesterone induced expression of alkaline phosphatase is associated with a secretory phenotype in T47D breast cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 192:1066–1072PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. di Salle E, Briatico G, Giudici D, Ornati G, Panzeri A (1994) Endocrine properties of the testosterone 5α-reductase inhibitor turosteride (FCE 26073). J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 48:241–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. di Salle E, Giudici D, Briatico G, Ornati G, Panzeri A (1993) Hormonal effects of turosteride, a 5α-reductase inhibitor, in the rat. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 46:549–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. di Salle E, Giudici G, Radice A, Zaccheo T, Ornati G, Nesi M, Panzeri A, Délos S, Martin PM (1998) PNU 157706, a novel dual type I and II 5α-reductase inhibitor. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 64:179–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. DiBella L, Gualano L (2006) Key aspects of melatonin physiology: thirty years of research. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 27(4):425–432Google Scholar
  378. Diamondstone TI (1966) Assay of tyrosine transaminase activity by conversion of p‐hydroxyphenylpyruvate to p‐hydroxybenzaldehyde. Anal Biochem 16:385–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. Dias JM, Go NF, Hart CP, Mattheakis LC (1998) Genetic recombination as a reporter for screening steroid receptor agonists and antagonists. Anal Biochem 258:96–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Dicker SE (1953) A method for the assay of very small amounts of antidiuretic activity with a note on the antidiuretic titer of rats' blood. J Physiol (Lond) 122:149–157Google Scholar
  381. Dijkema R, Schoonen WEG, Teuwen R, van der Struik E, de Ries RJH, van der Kar BAT, Olijve W (1998) Human receptor A and B isoforms in CHO cells. I. Stable transfection of receptor and receptor‐responsive reporter genes: transcription modulation by (anti)progestagens. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 64:147–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. Ding YQ, Huhtaniemi I (1989) Human serum LH inhibitor(s): behaviour and contribution to in vitro bioassay of LH using dispersed mouse Leydig cells. Acta Endocrinol 121:46–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. Distelhorst CW (1993) Steroid hormone receptors. J Lab Clin Med 122:241–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. Dobyns BM, Steelman SL (1953) The thyroid stimulating hormone of the anterior pituitary as distinct from the exophthalmos producing substance. Endocrinology 52:705–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. Docherty HM, Heath DA (1989) Multiple forms of parathyroid hormone-like proteins in a human tumor. J Mol Endocrinol 2:11–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. Doi N, Hirotani C, Ukai K, Shimada O, Okuno T, Kurasaki S, Kiyofuji T, Ikegami R, Futamata M, Nakagawa T, Ase K, Chihara K (2004) Pharmacological characteristics of KP-102 (GHRP-2), a potent growth hormone‐releasing peptide. Arzneimittelforschung 54(12):857–867PubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. Dole V, Meinertz J (1969) Microdetermination of long chain fatty acids in plasma and tissues. J Biol Chem 235:2595–2599Google Scholar
  388. Donaldson DJ, Sutton SW, Perrin MJ, Corrigan AZ, Lewis KA, Rivier JE, Vaughn JM, Vale WW (1995) Urocortin, a mammalian neuropeptide related to fish urotensin 1 and to corticotropin‐releasing factor. Nature 378:287–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. Dorfman RI (1948) Studies on the bioassay of hormones. The assay of testosterone propionate and androsterone by a chick inunction method. Endocrinology 48:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. Dorfman RI (1962) An anti-androgen assay using the castrated mouse. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 111:441–443Google Scholar
  391. Dorfman RI (1962) Corticoids. In: Dorfman RI (ed) Methods in hormone research, Vol II, Bioassay. Academic Press, New York, pp 325–367Google Scholar
  392. Dorfman RI (1969) Androgens and anabolic agents. In: Dorfman RI (ed) Methods in hormone research, Vol IIA. Academic Press, New York, pp 151–220Google Scholar
  393. Dorfman RI (1969) Antiandrogens. In: Dorfman RI (ed) Methods in hormone research, Vol IIA. Academic Press, New York, pp 221–249Google Scholar
  394. Dorfman RI (1969) Antiestrogens. In: Dorfman RI (ed) Methods in hormone research, Vol IIA. Academic Press, New York, pp 121–149Google Scholar
  395. Dorfman RI, Dorfman AS (1960) A test for anti‐androgens. Acta Endocrinol 33:308–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. Dorfman RI, Marsters RW, Dinerstein J (1953) Bioassay of relaxin. Endocrinology 52:204–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. Dorfman RI, Ross E, Shipley RA (1946) The assay of adrenal cortical material by means of a glycogen test in the adrenalectomized mouse. Endocrinology 38:178–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. Dorrington JH, Armstrong DT (1975) Follicle‐stimulating hormone stimulates estradiol‐17β synthesis in cultured Sertoli cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72:2677–2681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. Dorrington JH, Moon YS, Armstrong DT (1975) Estradiol‐17β biosynthesis in cultured granulosa cells from hypophysectomized immature rats; stimulation by follicle‐stimulating hormone. Endocrinology 97:1328–1331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. Dorrington JH, Roller NF, Fritz IB (1975) Effects of follicle‐stimulating hormone on cultures of Sertoli cell preparations. Mol Cell Endocrinol 3:57–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. Downing SJ, Hollingsworth M (1993) Action of relaxin on uterine contractions. A review. J Reprod Fertil 99:275–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. Downing SJ, Sherwood OD (1985) The physiological role of relaxin in the pregnant rat. III. The influence of relaxin on cervical distensibility. Endocrinology 116:1215–1220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. Doyon C, Moraru A, Richard D (2004) The corticotropin‐releasing factor system as a potential target for antiobesity drugs. Drug News Perspect 17(8):505–517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. Druzgala P, Hochhaus G, Bodor N (1991) Soft drugs. 10. Blanching activity and receptor binding affinity of a new type of glucocorticoid: loteprednol etabonate. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 38:149–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. Du Vivier A, Marshall AC, Brookes LG (1978) An animal model for evaluating the local and systemic effects of topically applied corticosteroids on epidermal synthesis. Br J Dermatol 98:209–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. DuVigneaud V, Fitt PS, Bodanszky M, O'Connell M (1960) Synthesis and some pharmacological properties of a peptide derivative of oxytocin: glycyloxytocin. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 104:653–656Google Scholar
  407. Dubocovich ML (1985) Characterization of a retinal melatonin receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 234:395–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. Dubocovich ML, Cardinali DP, Delagrange P, Krause DN, Strosberg D, Sugden D, Yocca FD (2001) Melatonin receptors. The IUPHAR compendium of receptor characterization and classification. IUPHAR Media, London, pp 270–277Google Scholar
  409. Dubocovich ML, DelPedro A, Masana MI (1997a) The efficacy of melatonin receptor analogues is dependent on the level of human melatonin receptor subtype expression. Chronobiol Int 14:45Google Scholar
  410. Dubocovich ML, Masana MI, Iacob S, Sauri DM (1997) Melatonin receptor antagonists that differentiate between the human Mel1a and Mel1b recombinant subtypes are used to assess the pharmacological profile of the rabbit retina ML1 presynaptic heteroreceptor. Naunyn‐Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 355:365–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  411. Dubocovich ML, Yun K, Al-Ghoul WM, Benloucif S, Masana MI (1998) Selective MT2 melatonin receptor antagonists block melatonin‐mediated phase advances of circadian rhythms. FASEB J 12:1211–1220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  412. Duc I, Botella J, Bonnet P, Fraboul F, Delansorne R, Paris J (1995) Antiandrogenic activity of nomegestrol acetate. Arzneimittelforschung 45:70–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. Dufau ML, Catt KJ, Tsuruhara J (1972) A sensitive gonadotropin responsive system: radioimmunoassay of testosterone production by the rat testis in vitro. Endocrinology 90:1032–1040PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  414. Dufau ML, Pock R, Neubauer A, Catt KJ (1976) In vitro bioassay of LH in human serum: the rat interstitial cell testosterone (RICT) assay. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 42:958–969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  415. Dufau ML, Tsuruhara T, Horner KA, Podesta E, Catt KJ (1977) Intermediate role of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate and protein kinase during gonadotropin‐induced steroidogenesis in testicular interstitial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74:3419–3423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  416. Dukes M, Russell W, Walpole AL (1974) Potent luteolytic agents related to prostaglandin F. Nature 250:330–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  417. Dumont Y, Fournier A, St-Pierre S, Quirion R (1997) A potent and selective CGRP2 agonist, [Cys(Et)2.7]hCGRPα: comparison in prototypical CGRP1 and CGRP2 in vitro bioassays. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 75:671–676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. Duthie SM, Taylor PL, Anderson L, Cook J, Eidne KA (1993) Cloning and functional characterization of the human TRH receptor. Mol Cell Endocrinol 95:R11–R15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  419. Dwivedy I, Ray S, Grover A (1993) Present status of luteolytic agents in fertility regulation. Prog Drug Res 40:239–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. Ealey PA, Marshall NJ, Ekins RP (1984) Further studies on the response of a cytochemical bioassay to thyroid stimulators, using reference preparations of thyrotropin and long acting thyroid stimulator. J Endocrinol Invest 7:25–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  421. Ealey PA, Valente WA, Ekins RP, Kohn LD, Marshall NJ (1985) Characterization of monoclonal antibodies raised against solubilized thyrotropin receptors in a cytochemical bioassay for thyroid stimulators. Endocrinology 116:124–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  422. Ealey PA, Yateman ME, Holt SJ, Marshall NJ (1988) ESTA: a bioassay system for the determination of potencies of hormones and antibodies which mimic their action. J Mol Endocrinol 1:R1–R4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. Ealey PA, Yateman ME, Sandhu R, Dattani MD, Hassan MK, Holt SJ, Marshall NJ (1995) The development of an eluted stain bioassay (ESTA) for human growth hormone. Growth Regul 5:36–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. Eberhardt W, Kilz T, Akool ES, Müller R, Pfeilschifter J (2005) Dissociated glucocorticoids equipotently inhibit cytokine- and cAMP-induced matrix degrading proteases in rat mesangial cells. Biochem Pharmacol 70:433–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  425. Ebisawa T, Karne S, Lerner MR, Reppert SM (1994) Expression cloning of a high-affinity melatonin receptor from Xenopus dermal melanophores. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:6133–6137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  426. Eckart K, Jahn O, Radulovic J, Radulovic M, Blank T, Stiedl O, Brauns O, Tezval H, Zeyda T, Spiess J (2002) Pharmacology and biology of corticotropin‐releasing factor (CRF) receptors. Receptors Channels 8(3–4):163–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. Edwards DP, Altmann M, DeMarzo A, Zhang Y, Weigel NL, Beck CA (1995) Progesterone receptor and the mechanisms of action of progesterone antagonists. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 53:449–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  428. Edwards JP, West SJ, Marschke KB, Mais DE, Gottardis MM, Jones TK (1998) 5-Aryl-1,2-dihydro-5H-chromeno[3,4-f] quinolines as potent, orally active nonsteroidal progesterone receptor agonists. The effect of D-ring substituents. J Med Chem 41:303–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  429. Eisenberg E, Gordon GS (1950) The levator ani muscle of the rat as an index of myotrophic activity of steroidal hormones. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 99:38–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  430. Eisler M (1964) Animal techniques for evaluating sex steroids. In: Nodine JH, Siegler PE (eds) Animal and clinical pharmacologic techniques in drug evaluation. Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, Ill., pp 566–573Google Scholar
  431. Elands J, Barberis C, Jard S, Lammek B, Manning M, Sawyer WH, de Kloet ER (1988) 125I-d(CH2)5[Tyr(Me)2,Tyr(NH2)9]AVP: iodination and binding characteristics of a vasopressin receptor ligand. FEBS Lett 229:251–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  432. Elands J, Barberis C, Jard S, Tribollet E, Dreifuss JJ, Bankowski K, Manning M, Sawyer WH (1987) 125I-labelled d(CH2)5[Tyr(Me)2,Thr4,Tyr-NH2 9]OTV. A selective oxytocin receptor ligand. Eur J Pharmacol 147:197–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  433. Elton RL, Edgren RA (1958) Biological actions of 17α-(2‐methallyl)-19‐nortestosterone, an orally active progestional agent. Endocrinology 63:464–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  434. Emmens CW (1969) Estrogens. In: Dorfman RI (ed) Methods in Hormone Research, Vol IIA, Chapter 2. Academic Press, New York and London, pp 61–120Google Scholar
  435. Endres DB, Villanueva R, Sharp CF, Singer FR (1989) Measurement of parathyroid hormone. Endocrin Metab Clin North Am 18:611–629Google Scholar
  436. England BG, Niswender GD Midgley AR (1974) Radioimmunoassay of estradiol‐17β without chromatography. J Clin Endocrin Metab 38:42–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  437. Erskine-Grout ME, Olivier GWJ, Lucas P, Sahm UG, Branch SK, Moss SH, Notarianni LJ, Pouton CW (1996) Melanocortin probes for the melanoma MC1 receptor: synthesis, receptor binding and biological activity. Melanoma Res 6:89–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  438. Eto Y, Tsuji T, Takezawa M, Takano S, Tokagawa Y, Shibai H (1987) Purification and characterization of erythroid differentiation factor (EDF) isolated from human leukemia cell line THP-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 142:1095–1103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  439. European Pharmacopoeia (1986) Monograph 471. Maisonneuve, Sainte Ruffine, FranceGoogle Scholar
  440. Evangelista S, Renzi D (1997) A protective role for calcitonin gene-related peptide in water‐immersion stress‐induced gastric ulcers in rats. Pharmacol Res 35:347–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. Evans BA, John M, Fowler KJ, Summers RJ, Crink M, Shine J, Tregear GW (1993) The mouse relaxin gene: nucleotide sequence and expression. J Mol Endocrinol 10:15–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  442. Evans BE, Lundell GF, Gilbert KF, Bock MG, Rittle KE, Carroll LA, Williams PD, Pawluczyk JM, Leighton JL, Young MB, Erb JM, Hobbs DW, Gould NP, DiPardo RM, Hoffman JB, Perlow DS, Whitter WL, Veber DF, Pettibone DJ, Clineschmidt BV, Anderson PS, Freidinger RM (1993) Nanomolar‐affinity, non-peptide oxytocin receptor antagonists. J Med Chem 36:3993–4005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. Evans BK, Mason R, Wilson VG (1992) Evidence for direct vasoconstriction activity of melatonin in `pressurized' segments of isolated caudal artery from juvenile rats. Naunyn‐Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 346:362–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  444. Evans HM, Simpson ME, Tolksdorf S, Jensen H (1939) Biological studies of the gonadotropic principles in sheep pituitary substance. Endocrinology 25:529–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  445. Evans LW, Muttukrishna S, Groome NP (1998) Development, validation and application of an ultra‐sensitive immunoassay for human follistatin. J Endocrinol 156:275–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  446. Evans MJ, Brett JT, McIntosh RP, McIntosh JEA, McLay JL, Livesey JH, Donald RA (1988) Characteristics of the ACTH response to repeated pulses of corticotrophin‐releasing factor and arginine vasopressin in vitro. J Endocrinol 117:387–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  447. Eves PC, MacNeil S, Haycock JW (2006) alpha‐Melanocyte stimulating hormone, inflammation and human melanoma. Peptides 27(2):444–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  448. Eviatar A, Danon A, Sulman FG (1961) The mechanism of the “push and pull” principle. V. Effect of the antiandrogen RO 2-7239 on the endocrine system. Arch Int Pharmacodyn 133:75–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  449. Fadalti M, Pezzani I, Cobellis L, Springolo F, Petrovec MM, Ambrosini G, Reis FM, Petraglia F (2000) Placental corticotropin‐releasing factor. An update. Ann NY Acad Sci 900:89–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  450. Faden AI, Knoblach SM, Movsesyan VA, Lea PM 4th, Cernak I (2005) Novel neuroprotective tripeptides and dipeptides. Ann NY Acad Sci 1053:472–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  451. Fagart J, Sobrio F, Marquet A (1997a) Synthesis of [3H-2]-21‐diazoprogesterone as a potent photoaffinity labelling reagent for the mineralocorticoid receptor. J Labelled Compd Radiopharm 39:791–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  452. Fagart J, Wurtz J-M, Souque A, Hellal-Levy C, Moras D, Rafestin-Oblin M-E (1997b) Antagonism in the human mineralocorticoid receptor. EMBO J 17:3317–3325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  453. Faglia G (1998) The clinical impact of the thyrotropin‐releasing hormone test. Thyroid 8(10):903–908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  454. Fahrenholz F, Kojro E, Jans D (1988) Renal and hepatic vasopressin receptor proteins: identification and strategies for purification. In: Cowley AW Jr, Liard JF, Ausiello DA (eds) Vasopressin: cellular and integrative functions. Raven, New York, pp 27–32Google Scholar
  455. Fail PA, Anderson SA, Friedman MA (1999) Response of the pituitary and thyroid to tropic hormones in Sprague‐Dawley versus Fischer 344 male rats. Toxicol Sci 52(1):107–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  456. Faiman C, Ryan RJ (1967) Serum follicle‐stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone concentrations during the menstrual cycle as determined by radioimmunoassays. J Clin Endocrin Metab 27:1711–1716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  457. Fallest PC, Trader GL, Darrow JM, Shupnik MA (1995) Regulation of rat luteinizing hormone β gene expression in transgenic mice by steroids and a gonadotropin‐releasing hormone antagonist. Biol Reprod 55:103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  458. Falvo RE, Nalbandov AV (1974) Radioimmunoassay of peripheral plasma testosterone in males from eight species using a specific antibody without chromatography. Endocrinology 95:1466–1468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  459. Fan W, Boston BA, Kesterson RA, Hruby VJ, Cone RD (1997) Role of melanocortin neurons in feeding and agouti obesity syndrome. Nature 386:165–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  460. Fan W, Voss-Andreae A, Cao WH, Morrison SF (2005) Regulation of thermogenesis by the central melanocortin system. Peptides 26 (10):1800–1813Google Scholar
  461. Fathi Z, Iben LG, Parker RM (1995) Cloning, expression, and tissue distribution of a fifth melanocortin receptor subtype. Neurochem Res 20:107–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  462. Fauser BCJM, Soto D, Czekala NM, Hsueh AJW (1989) Granulosa cell aromatase bioassay: changes of bioactive FSH levels in the female. J Steroid Biochem 33:721–726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  463. Fehm HL, Born J, Peters A (2004) Glucocorticoids and melanocortins in the regulation of body weight in humans. Horm Metab Res 36(6):360–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  464. Fekete M, Bajuz S, Groot K, Csernus VJ, Schally AV (1989) Comparison of different agonists and antagonists of luteinizing hormone‐releasing hormone for receptor binding ability to rat pituitary and human breast cancer membranes. Endocrinology 124:946–955PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  465. Fekete M, Redding TW, Comaru‐Schally AM, Pontes JE, Connelly RW, Srkalovic G, Schally AV (1989) Receptors for luteinizing hormone‐releasing hormone, somatostatin, prolactin, and epidermal growth factor in rat and human prostate cancers and in benign prostate hyperplasia. Prostate 14:191–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  466. Felgner PL, Gadek TR, Holm M, Roman R, Chan HW, Wenz M, Northrop JP, Ringold GM, Danielsen M (1987) Lipofection: a highly efficient, lipid-mediated DNA‐transfection procedure. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:7413–7417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  467. Felgner PL, Holm M (1989) Cationic liposome‐mediated transfection. Focus 11:21–25Google Scholar
  468. Felton LC, Frieden EH, Bryant HH (1953) The effects of ovarian extracts upon activity of the guinea pig uterus in situ. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 107:160–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  469. Findlay DM, Michelangeli VP, Eisman JA, Frampton RJ, Moseley JM, MacIntyre I, Whitehead R, Martin TJ (1980) Calcitonin and 1,25‐dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors in human breast cancer lines. Cancer Res 40:4764–4767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  470. Findlay DM, Michelangeli VP, Martin TJ, Orlowski RC, Seyler JK (1985) Conformational requirements for activity of salmon calcitonin. Endocrinology 117:801–805PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  471. Findlay DM, Michelangeli VP, Orlowski RC, Martin TJ (1983) Biological activities and receptor interactions of des-leu16 salmon and des-phe16 human calcitonin. Endocrinology 112:1288–1291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  472. Fink G, Koch Y, Ben Aroya N (1982) Release of thyrotropin releasing hormone into hypophyseal portal blood is high relative to other neuropeptides and may be related to prolactin secretion. Brain Res 234:186–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  473. Finnen MJ, Herdman ML, Shuster S (1984) Induction of drug metabolizing enzymes in the skin by topical steroids. J Steroid Biochem 20:1169–1173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  474. Finnen MJ, Herdman ML, Shuster S (1985) Strain differences in the induction of mono‐oxygenase activity in mouse skin by topical clobetasol propionate: evidence of a role for the HR locus. J Steroid Biochem 23:431–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  475. Fintini D, Alba M, Schally AV, Bowers CY, Parlow AF, Salvatori R (2005) Effects of combined long-term treatment with a growth hormone‐releasing hormone analogue and a growth hormone secretagogue in the growth hormone‐releasing hormone knock out mouse. Neuroendocrinology 82(3–4):198–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  476. Fisher JD (1962) Adrenocorticotropin. In: Dorfman RI (ed) Methods in hormone research, Vol II. Academic Press, New York, pp 641–669Google Scholar
  477. Fiske CH, Subbarow Y (1925) The colorimetric determination of phosphorus. J Biol Chem 66:375–400Google Scholar
  478. Flanagan CA, Fromme BJ, Davidson JS, Millar RP (1998) A high affinity gonadotropin‐releasing hormone (GnRH) tracer, radioiodinated at position 6, facilitates analysis of mutant GnRH receptors. Endocrinology 139:4115–4119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  479. Fleming NW, Lewis BK, White DA, Dretchen KL (1993) Acute effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide on the mechanical and electrical responses of the rat hemidiaphragm. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 265:1199–1204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  480. Flohé L, Bauer K, Friderichs E, Günzler WA, Hennies HH, Herrling S, Lagler F, Otting F, Schwertner E (1983) Biological effects of degradation‐stabilized TRH analogues. In: Griffiths EC, Bennett GW (eds) Thyrotropin‐releasing hormone. Raven, New York, pp 327–340Google Scholar
  481. Foldesy RG, Vanderhoof MM, Hahn DW (1985) In vitro and in vivo comparisons of antiandrogenic potencies of two histamine H2-receptor antagonists, cimetidine and etintidine-HCl (42087). Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 179:206–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  482. Forage RG, Ring JM, Brown RW et al (1986) Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA species coding for the two subunits of inhibin from bovine follicular fluid. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:3091–3095PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  483. Foster CM, Borondy M, Padmanabhan V, Schwartz J, Kletter GB, Hopwood NJ, Beitins IZ (1993) Bioactivity of human growth hormone in serum: validation of an in vitro bioassay. Endocrinology 132:2073–2082PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  484. Foulds LM, Robertson DM (1983) Electrofocusing fractionation and characterization of pituitary follicle‐stimulating hormone from male and female rats. Mol Cell Endocrinol 31:117–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  485. Fraccarollo D, Galuppo P, Schmidt I, Ertl G, Bauersachs J (2005) Additive amelioration of left ventricular remodeling and molecular alterations by combined aldosterone and angiotensin receptor blockade after myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Res 67:97–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  486. Franchimont P, Hazee‐Hagelstein MT, Jaspar JM, Charlet‐Renard C, Demoulin A (1989) Inhibin and related peptides: mechanisms of action and regulation of secretion. J Steroid Biochem 32:193–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  487. Franchimont P, Verstraelen‐Proyard J, Hazee‐Hagelstein MT, Renard Ch, Demoulin A, Bourguignon JP, Hustin J (1979) Inhibin: from concept to reality. In: Munson PL, Diczfalusy E, Glover J, Olson RE (eds) Vitamins and hormones. Advances in research and applications, Vol 37. Academic Press, New York, pp 243–302Google Scholar
  488. Frank RT, Klempner E, Hollander R, Kriss B (1942) Detailed description of technique for androgen assay by the chick comb method. Endocrinology 31:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  489. Freidinger RM, Pettibone DJ (1997) Small molecule ligands for oxytocin and vasopressin receptors. Med Res Rev 17:1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  490. Friedman J, Raisz LG (1965) Thyrocalcitonin: inhibitor of bone resorption in tissue culture. Science 150:1465–1467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  491. Frohman LA, Downs TR, Chomczynski P, Frohman MA (1990) Growth hormone‐releasing hormone: structure, gene expression and molecular heterogeneity. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 367:81–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  492. Frohman LA, Jansson JO (1986) Growth hormone‐releasing hormone. Endocr Rev 7(3):223–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  493. Fromherz K (1926) Bemerkungen zur Auswertung von Hypophysenextrakt am Meerschweinchenuterus. Naunyn‐Schmiedebergs Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 113:113–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  494. Fuchs AR, Mok E, Sundaram K (1974) Luteolytic effects of prostaglandins in rat pregnancy, and reversal by luteinizing hormone. Acta Endocrinol 76:583–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  495. Fuhrmann U, Bengtson C, Repenthin G, Schillinger E (1992) Stable transfection of androgen receptor and MMTV-CAT into mammalian cells: inhibition of CAT expression by antiandrogens. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 42:787–793PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  496. Fuhrmann U, Krattenmacher R, Slater EP, Fritzemeier KH (1996) The novel progestin drospirone and its natural counterpart progesterone: biochemical profile and antiandrogenic potential. Contraception 54:243–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  497. Fuhrmann U, Slater EP, Fritzemeier KH (1995) Characterization of the novel progestin gestodene by receptor binding studies and transactivation assays. Contraception 51:45–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  498. Fukase M, Birge SJ, Rifas L, Avioli LV, Chase LR (1982) Regulation of 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 1‐hydroxylase in serum-free monolayer culture of mouse kidney. Endocrinology 110:1073–1075PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  499. Fukayama S, Royo M, Sugita M, Imrich A, Chorev M, Suva LJ, Rosenblatt M, Tashjian AH Jr (1998) New insights into interactions between the human PTH/PTHrP receptor and agonist/antagonist binding. Am J Physiol 274:E297–E303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  500. Fukayama S, Tashjian AH (1994) Involvement of alkaline phosphatase in the modulation of receptor signaling in osteoblasts: evidence for a difference between human parathyroid hormone‐related protein and human parathyroid hormone. J Cell Physiol 158:391–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  501. Funder JM, Feldman D, Highland E, Edelman IS (1974) Molecular modifications of anti‐aldosterone compounds: effects on affinity of spironolactones for renal aldosterone receptors. Biochem Pharmacol 23:1493–1501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  502. Funder JW (1997) Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors: biological and clinical relevance. Annu Rev Med 48:231–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  503. Furr BJA, Valcaccia B, Curry B, Woodburn JR, Chesterson C, Tucker H (1987) ICI 176,334: a novel non‐steroidal, peripherally selective antiandrogen. J Endocrinol 113:R7–R9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  504. Furukawa K, Nomoto T, Tonoue T (1980) Effects of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) on the isolated small intestine and taenia coli of the guinea pig. Eur J Pharmacol 64:279–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  505. Furuta S, Shimada O, Doi N, Ukai K, Nakagawa T, Watanabe J, Imaizumi M (2004) General pharmacology of KP-102 (GHRP-2), a potent growth hormone‐releasing peptide. Arzneimittelforschung 54(12):868–880PubMedGoogle Scholar
  506. Fussgänger R (1934) Ein Beitrag zum Wirkungsmechanismus des männlichen Sexualhormons. Med Chem 2:194–204Google Scholar
  507. Gabrielsson BG, Carmignac DF, Flavell DM, Robinson ICAF (1995) Steroid regulation of growth hormone (GH) receptor and GH-binding protein messenger ribonucleic acids in the rat. Endocrinology 136:209–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  508. Gaido KW, Leonard LS, Lovell S, Gould JC, Babal D, Portier CJ, McDonnell DP (1997) Evaluation of chemicals with endocrine modulating activity in a yeast-based steroid hormone receptor gene transcription assay. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 143:205–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  509. Gaignault JP, Duval D, Meyer P (1977) The relationship between glucocorticoid structure and effects upon thymocytes. Mol Pharmacol 13:948–955PubMedGoogle Scholar
  510. Gaillard RC, Schoeneberg P, Favrod-Coune CA, Muller AF, Marie J, Bockaert J, Jard S (1984) Properties of rat anterior pituitary vasopressin receptors: relation to adenylate cyclase and the effect of corticotropin‐releasing factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:2907–2911PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  511. Gaines Das RE, Rose M, Zanelli JM (1992) International collaborative study by in vitro bioassays of the first International Standard for porcine inhibin. J Reprod Fertil 96:803–814PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  512. Galfre G, Milstein C (1981) Preparation of monoclonal antibodies: strategies and procedures. In: Langone JJ, Vunakis HV (eds) Methods in enzymology. Academic Press, New York, pp 3–36Google Scholar
  513. Gallagher TF, Koch FC (1935) The quantitative assay for the testicular hormone by the comb-growth reaction. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 55:97–117Google Scholar
  514. Galliani G, Ciabatti R, Colombo G, Guzzi U, Luzzani F, Glässer A (1984) Studies on the luteolytic activity of MDL-646, a new gastroprotective PGE1 analogue, in the hamster. Prostaglandins 27:583–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  515. Gans E, van Rees GP (1966) Studies on the testicular augmentation assay method for follicle stimulating hormone. Acta Endocrinol 52:573–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  516. Gantz I, Fong TM (2003) The melanocortin system. Am J Physiol 284(3):E468–E474Google Scholar
  517. Gantz I, Konda Y, Tashiro T, Shimoto Y, Miwa H, Munzert G, Watson SJ, Del Valle J, Yamada T (1993a) Molecular cloning of a novel melanocortin receptor. J Biol Chem 268:8246–8250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  518. Gantz I, Miwa H, Konda Y, Shimoto Y, Tashiro T, Watson SJ, Del Valle J, Yamada T (1993b) Molecular cloning, expression, and gene location of a fourth melanocortin receptor. J Biol Chem 268:15174–15179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  519. Garcia T, Benhamou B, Gofflo D, Vergezac A, Philibert D, Chambon P, Gronemeyer H (1992) Switching agonistic, antagonistic, and mixed transcriptional responses to 11β-substituted progestins by mutation of the progesterone receptor. Mol Endocrinol 6:2071–2078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  520. Garcia‐Borron JC, Sanchez‐Laorden BL, Jimenez‐Cervantes C (2005) Melanocortin‐1 receptor structure and functional regulation. Pigment Cell Res 18(6):393–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  521. Gardella TJ, Luck MD, Fan M-H, Lee C (1996) Transmembrane residues of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor that specifically affect binding and signaling by agonist ligands. J Biol Chem 271:12820–12825PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  522. Garthwaite SM, McMahon EG (2004) The evolution of aldosterone antagonists. Mol Cell Endocrinol 217:27–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  523. Gash DM, Herman JP, Thomas GJ (1987) Vasopressin and animal behavior. In: Gash DM, Boer GJ (eds) Vasopressin. Principles and properties. Plenum, New York, pp 517–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  524. Gaudreau P, Boulanger L, Abribat T (1992) Affinity of human growth hormone‐releasing factor (1-29)NH2 analogues for GRF binding sites in rat adenopituitary. J Med Chem 35:1864–1869PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  525. Geelen JAA, Deckers GH, van der Wardt JTH, Loozen HJJ, Tax LJW, Kloosterboer HJ (1991) Selection of 19-(ethyldithio)-andro-4-ene-3,17-dione (ORG 30958): a potent aromatase inhibitor in vivo. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 38:181–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  526. Geiger R, Sturm K, Vogel G, Siedel W (1964) Synthetische Analoge des Corticotropins. Zur Bedeutung der aminoterminalen Sequenz Ser-Tyr-Ser für die adrenocorticotrope Wirkung. Z Naturforsch 19b:858–860Google Scholar
  527. Gelato MC, Merriam GR (1986) Growth hormone releasing hormone. Annu Rev Physiol 48:569–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  528. Gemmill CL (1953) Comparison of activity of thyroxine and 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine. Am J Physiol 172:286–290Google Scholar
  529. George FW, Johnson L, Wilson JD (1989) The effect of a 5α-reductase inhibitor on androgen physiology in the immature male rat. Endocrinology 125:2434–2438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  530. Gershengorn MC, Osman R (1996) Molecular and cellular biology of thyrotropin‐releasing hormone receptors. Physiol Rev 76:175–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  531. Geschwind II, Li CH (1955) The tibia test for growth hormone. In: Smith RW, Gaebler OH, Long CNH (eds) Hypophyseal growth hormone, nature and actions. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 28–58Google Scholar
  532. Getting SJ (2006) Targeting melanocortin receptors as potential novel therapeutics. Pharmacol Ther 111(1):1–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  533. Gibbs DM (1984) Collection of pituitary portal blood: a methodologic analysis. Neuroendocrinology 38:97–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  534. Gibbs DM (1985a) Measurement of hypothalamic corticotropin‐releasing factors in hypophyseal portal blood. Fed Proc 44:203–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  535. Gibbs DM (1985b) Hypothalamic epinephrine is released into hypophyseal portal blood during stress. Brain Res 335:360–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  536. Gibbs DM, Vale W (1982) Presence of corticotropin releasing factor-like immunoreactivity in hypophyseal portal blood. Endocrinology 111:1418–1420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  537. Giesen EM, Beck G (1982) Hormonal deinduction of tyrosine aminotransferase. Horm Metab Res 14:252–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  538. Giguère V, Labrie F (1982) Vasopressin potentiates cyclic AMP accumulation and ACTH release induced by corticotropin‐releasing factor (CRF) in rat anterior pituitary cells in culture. Endocrinology 111:1752–1754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  539. Giguère V, Labrie F, Côte J, Coy DH, Sueiras-Diaz J, Schally AV (1982) Stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation and corticotropin release by synthetic ovine corticotropin‐releasing factor in rat anterior pituitary cells: site of glucocorticoid action. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:3466–3469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  540. Glaubach S, Molitor H (1932) Vergleich der Auswertungsmethoden von Gesamtextrakten des Hypophysenhinterlappens am isolierten Meerrschweinchenuterus und an der Diuresehemmung von Hunden, Ratten und Mäusen. Naunyn‐Schmiedebergs Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 166:243–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  541. Glick SM, Kagan A (1978) Vasopressin. In: Jaffe BM, Behrman HR (eds) Methods of hormone radioimmunoassay. Academic Press, New York, pp 341–351Google Scholar
  542. Goldner J (1938) A modification of the Masson trichrome technique for routine laboratory purposes. Am J Pathol 14:237–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  543. Goldsmith LT, Weiss G, Steinetz BG (1995) Relaxin and its role in pregnancy. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 24:171–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  544. Goltzman D, Henderson B, Loveridge N (1980) Cytochemical bioassay of parathyroid hormone: characteristics of the assay and analysis of circulating hormonal forms. J Clin Invest 65:1309–1317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  545. González M, Jiménez B, Berciano MT, Ganzález-Sancho, Caelles C, Lafarga M, Muñoz A (2000) Glucocorticoids antagonize AP-1 by inhibiting the activation/ phosphorylation of JNK without affecting its subcellular distribution. J Cell Biol 150:1199–1207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  546. Gopalakrishnan V, Triggle CR, Sulakhe PV, McNeill JR (1986) Characterization of a specific, high affinity [3H]arginine8 vasopressin‐binding site in liver microsomes from different strains of rats and the role of magnesium. Endocrinology 118:990–997PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  547. Gorman CM, Moffat LF, Howard BH (1982) Recombinant genomes which express chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biol 2:1044–1055PubMedGoogle Scholar
  548. Graf MV, Kastin AJ, Fischman AJ (1985) Interaction of arginine vasopressin and corticotropin releasing factor demonstrated with an improved bioassay. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 179:303–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  549. Grammatopoulos D, Hillhouse EW (1998) Solubilization and biochemical characterization of the human myometrial corticotropin‐releasing hormone receptor. Mol Cell Endocrinol 138:185–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  550. Grant FD (2000) Genetic models of vasopressin deficiency. Exp Physiol 85:203S–209SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  551. Grasso P, Heindel JJ, Powell CJ, Reichert LE Jr (1993) Effects of mono(2‐ethylhexyl)phthalate, a testicular toxicant, on follicle‐stimulating hormone binding to membranes of cultured rat Sertoli cells. Biol Reprod 48:454–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  552. Grassy G, Fagart J, Calas B, Adenot M, Rafestin-Oblin ME, Auzou G (1997) Structure‐activity relationships of steroids with anti‐mineralocorticoid activity. Eur J Med Chem 32:869–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  553. Grauer A, Raue F, Reinel HH, Schneider HG, Schroth J, Kabay A, Brügger P, Ziegler R (1992) A new in vitro bioassay for human calcitonin: validation and comparison to the rat hypocalcemia bioassay. Bone Miner 17:65–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  554. Green S, Chambon P (1988) Nuclear receptors enhance our understanding of transcription regulations. Trends Genet 4:309–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  555. Greenberg A, Verbalis JG (2006) Vasopressin receptor antagonists. Kidney Int 69(12):21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  556. Greene GL, Gilna P, Waterfield M, Baker A, Hort Y, Shine J (1986) Sequence and expression of human estrogen receptor complementary DNA. Science 231:1150–1154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  557. Greenlee WF, Poland A (1978) An improved assay of 7‐ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity: induction of hepatic enzyme activity in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice by phenobarbital, 3‐methylcholanthrene and 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p‐dioxin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 205:596–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  558. Greenspan FS, Li CH, Simpson ME, Evans HM (1949) Bioassay of hypophyseal growth hormone: The tibia test. Endocrinology 45:455–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  559. Greenspan FS, Li CH, Simpson ME, Evans HM (1950) Growth hormone. In: Emmens CW (ed) Hormone assay. Academic Press, New York, pp 273–290Google Scholar
  560. Greenwood AW, Blyth JSS, Callow RK (1935) Quantitative studies on the response of the capon's comb to androsterone. Biochem J 29:1400–1413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  561. Greenwood FC, Hunter WH, Glower JS (1963) The preparation of 125I labeled growth hormone of high specific activity. Biochemistry 89:114–123Google Scholar
  562. Greenwood FC, Hunter WM, Glover JS (1963) The preparation of 131I-labelled human growth hormone of high specific radioactivity. Biochem J 89:114–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  563. Greep RO, van Dyke HB, Chow BF (1942) Gonadotropins of the swine pituitary. I. Various biological effects of purified thylakentrin (FSH) and pure metakentrin (ICSH). Endocrinology 30:635–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  564. Griebel G, Perrault G, Sanger DJ (1998) Characterization of the behavioral profile of the non-peptide CRF receptor antagonist CP-154,526 in anxiety models in rodents. Comparison with diazepam and bispirone. Psychopharmacology 138:55–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  565. Griebel G, Simiand J, Steinberg R, Jung M, Gully D, Roger P, Geslin M, Scatton B, Maffrand JP, Soubrie P (2002)4-(2-Chloro-4-methoxy-5‐methylphenyl)-N-[(1S)-2‐cyclopropyl‐1-(3-fluoro-4‐methylphenyl)ethyl]5-methyl-N-(2-propynyl)-1, 3-thiazol-2-amine hydrochloride (SSR125543A), a potent and selective corticotrophin‐releasing factor(1) receptor antagonist. II. Characterization in rodent models of stress‐related disorders. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 301:333–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  566. Grigoriadis DE (2003) Corticotropin‐releasing factor receptor antagonists: potential novel therapies for human disease. Cell Transmissions 19:3–19Google Scholar
  567. Grigoriadis DE, Heroux JA, De Souza EB (1993) Characterization and regulation of corticotropin‐releasing factor receptors in the central nervous, endocrine and immune system. In: Chadwick DJ, Marsh J, Ackrill K (eds) Ciba Foundation symposium 172. Wiley, Chichester, pp 85–107Google Scholar
  568. Grigoriadis DE, Liu XJ, Vaughn J, Palmer SF, True CD, Vale WW, Ling N, De Souza EB (1996) 125I-Tyro‐sauvagine: a novel high affinity radioligand for the pharmacological and biochemical study of human corticotropin releasing factor 2α receptors. Mol Pharmacol 50:679–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  569. Groesbeck MD, Parlow AF (1987) Highly improved precision of the hypophysectomized female rat body weight gain bioassay for growth hormone by increased frequency of injections, avoidance of antibody formation, and other simple modifications. Endocrinology 120:2582–2590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  570. Grollman A (1941) Biological assay of adrenal cortical activity. Endocrinology 29:855–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  571. Groome NP, Illingworth PJ, O'Brien M, Priddle J, Weaver K, McNeilly AS (1995) Quantification of inhibin pro-αC-containing forms in human serum by a new ultrasensitive two-site enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80:2926–2932PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  572. Grossie J, Hendrich CE, Turner CW (1965) Comparative methods for determining biological half-life (t1/2) of L-thyroxine in normal, thyroidectomized and methimazole treated female rats. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 120:413–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  573. Grossman A, Savage MO, Besser GM (1986) Growth hormone releasing hormone [review]. Clin Endocrinol Metab 15(3):607–627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  574. Grover PK, Odell WD (1975) Correlation of in vivo and in vitro activities of some naturally occurring androgens using a radioreceptor assay for 5α-dihydrotestosterone with rat prostate cytosol receptor protein. J Steroid Biochem 5:1373–1379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  575. Guillemin R, Rosenberg B (1955) Humoral hypothalamic control of anterior pituitary: a study with combined tissue cultures. Endocrinology 57:599–607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  576. Guillemin R, Vale W (1970) Bioassays of the hypophysiotropic hormones: in vitro systems. In: Hypophysiotropic hormones of the hypothalamus: assay and chemistry. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md., pp 21–35Google Scholar
  577. Guillemin R, Yamazaki E, Gard D, Jutisz M, Sakiz E (1963) In vitro secretion of thyrotropin (TSH): stimulation by a hypothalamic peptide. Endocrinology 73:564–572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  578. Guissani DA, Jenkins SL, Mecenas CA, Owiny JR, Wentwort RA, Winter JA, Derks JB, Honnebier MBOM, Nathanielz PW (1995) The oxytocin (OT) antagonist Atosiban (ATO) prolongs gestation in the rhesus monkey. J Soc Gynecol Invest 2:265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  579. Gully D, Geslin M, Serva L, Fontaine E, Roger P, Lair C, Darre V, Marcy C, Rouby PE, Simiand J, Guitard J, Gout G, Steinberg R, Rodier D, Griebel G, Soubrie P, Pascal M, Pruss R, Scatton B, Maffrand JP, Le Fur G (2002) 4-(2-Chloro-4-methoxy-5‐methylphenyl)-N-[(1S)-2‐cyclopropyl‐1-(3-fluoro-4‐methylphenyl)ethyl]5-methyl-N-(2-propynyl)-1,3-thiazol-2-amine hydrochloride (SSR125543A): a potent and selective corticotrophin‐releasing factor(1) receptor antagonist. I. Biochemical and pharmacological characterization. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 301:322–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  580. Gundberg CM, Fawzi MI Clough ME, Calvo MS (1995) A comparison of the effects of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone‐related protein on osteocalcin in the rat. J Bone Miner Res 10:903–906PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  581. Gundernatsch JF (1913a) Feeding experiments on tadpoles. I. The influence of specific organs given as food on growth and differentiation. Roux Arch Entwicklungsmech 35:457–483Google Scholar
  582. Gundernatsch JF (1913b) Feeding experiments on tadpoles. II. A further contribution to the knowledge of organs with internal secretion. Am J Anat 15:431–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  583. Guo J, Liu B, Bringhurst FR (1997) Mechanisms of homologous and heterologous desensitization of PTH/PTHrP receptor signaling in LLC-PK-1 cells. Am J Physiol 273:E383–E393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  584. Guo Z, Chen YZ, Xu RB, Fu H (1995) Binding characteristics of glucocorticoid receptor in synaptic plasma membrane from rat brain. Funct Neurol 10:183–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  585. Gutknecht GD, Wyngarden LJ, Pharriss BB (1971) The effect of prostaglandin F on ovarian and plasma progesterone levels in the pregnant hamster. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 136:1151–1157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  586. Gutman DA, Owens MJ, Skelton KH, Thrivikraman KV, Nemeroff CB (2003) The corticotropin‐releasing factor1 receptor antagonist R121919 attenuates the behavioral and endocrine responses to stress. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 304:874–880PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  587. Gómez-Sánchez EP, Fort CM, Gómez-Sánchez CE (1990) Intracerebroventricular infusion of RU28318 blocks aldosterone‐salt hypertension. Am J Physiol 258:E482–E484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  588. Haavisto AM, Dunkel L, Pettersson K, Huhtaniemi I (1990) LH measurements by in vitro bioassay and a highly sensitive immunofluorometric assay improve the distinction between boys with constitutional delay of puberty and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Pediatr Res 27:211–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  589. Haavisto AM, Pettersson K, Bergendahl M, Perheentupa A, Roser FJ, Huhtaniemi I (1993) A supersensitive immunofluorometric assay for rat luteinizing hormone. Endocrinology 132:1687–1691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  590. Habener JF, Potts JT (1976) Radioimmunoassay of parathyroid hormone. In: Hormones in human blood. Detection and assay. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp 551–588Google Scholar
  591. Habenicht UF, Schneider MR, El Etreby MF (1990) Effect of the new potent LHRH antagonist Antide. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 37:937–942PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  592. Habib KE, Weld KP, Rice KC, Puskas J, Champoux M, Listwak S, Webster EL, Atkinson AJ, Schulkin J, Contoreggi C, Chrousos GP, McCann SM, Suomi SJ, Higley JD, Gold PW (2000) Oral administration of a corticotrophin‐releasing hormone receptor antagonist significantly attenuates behavioral, neuroendocrine, and autonomic responses to stress in primates. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:6079–6084PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  593. Hadley ME, Dorr RT (2006) Melanocortin peptide therapeutics: historical milestones, clinical studies and commercialization. Peptides 27(4):921–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  594. Haffner F (1927) Pharmakologische Untersuchungen mit einem deutschen Thyroxin. Klin Wschr 6:1932–1935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  595. Hahn DW, Allen GO, McGuire JL (1977) The pharmacological profile of norgestimate, a new orally active progestin. Contraception 16:541–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  596. Hajak G, Rodenbeck A, Hardeland R, Hüther G (1996) Melatonin: Vom Stiefkind der Hormonforschung zur Goldmarie der Vermarktungsstrategen. TW Neurol Psychiatr 10:384–390Google Scholar
  597. Hall K (1948) Further notes on the action of oestrone and relaxin on the pelvis of the spayed mouse, including a single-dose test of potency of relaxin. J Endocrinol 5:314–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  598. Halmos G, Rekasi Z, Szoke B, Schally AV (1993) Use of radioreceptor assay and cell superfusion system for in vitro screening of analogs of growth hormone‐releasing hormone. Receptor 3:87–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  599. Halmos G, Schally AV, Pinski J, Vadillo‐Buenfil M, Groot K (1996) Down‐regulation of pituitary receptors for luteinizing hormone‐releasing hormone (LH-RH) in rats by the LH-RH antagonist Cetorelix. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:2398–2402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  600. Halpern W, Osol G, Coy GS (1984) Mechanical behavior of pressurized in vitro prearteriolar vessels determined with a video system. Ann Biochem Engin 12:463–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  601. Halvorson LM, DeCherney AH (1996) Inhibin, activin, and follistatin in reproductive medicine. Fertil Steril 65:459–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  602. Hamburger C (1950) Gonadotropins. In: Emmens CW (ed) Hormone assay. Academic Press, New York, Chap. VII, pp 173–203Google Scholar
  603. Hamburger C, Pedersen‐Bjergaard K (1937) The assay of gonadotropic hormones. Standardisation curves for pregnant mare's serum hormone and human pregnant urine hormone. Q J Pharm Pharmacol 10:662–676Google Scholar
  604. Hamilton B, Schwartz C (1932) A method for the determination of small amounts of parathyroid hormone. J Pharmacol 46:285–292Google Scholar
  605. Hamilton HC (1912) The pharmacological assay of pituitary preparations. J Am Pharm Assoc Am Pharm Assoc 1:1117–1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  606. Hamilton JB, Montagna W (1950) The sebaceous gland of the hamster. I. Morphological effects of androgens on integumentary structures. Am J Anat 86:191–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  607. Hammet FS (1924) Studies of the thyroid apparatus. XXVIII. The differential development of the albino rat from 75 to 150 days of age and the influence of thyro‐parathyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy thereon. Am J Physiol 70:259–272Google Scholar
  608. Hammet FS (1926a) Studies on the thyroid apparatus. XXIX. The role of the thyroid apparatus in growth. Am J Physiol 76:69–91Google Scholar
  609. Hammet FS (1926b) Studies on the thyroid apparatus. The relation between age at initiation of and response of body growth to thyroid and parathyroid deficiency. Endocrinology 10:29–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  610. Hammet FS (1929) Thyroid and differential development. Endokrinologie 5:81–86Google Scholar
  611. Han B, Tashjian AH Jr (1995) Importance of extracellular domains for ligand binding in the thyrotropin‐releasing hormone receptor. Mol Endocrinol 9:1708–1719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  612. Harlin J, Khan SA, Diczfalusy E (1988) Molecular composition of luteinizing hormone and follicle‐stimulating hormone in commercial gonadotropin preparations. Fertil Steril 46:1055–1061Google Scholar
  613. Hartop PJ, Allenby CF, Prottey C (1978) Comparison of barrier function and lipids in psoriasis and essential fatty acid‐deficient rats. Clin Exp Dermatol 3:259–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  614. Hashimoto O, Yamato K, Koseki T, Ohguchi M, Ishisaki A, Shoji H, Nakamura T, Hayashi Y, Sugino H, Nishihara T (1998) The role of activin type I receptors in activin A-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in mouse B-cell hybridoma cells. Cell Signal 10:743–749PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  615. Hashizume T, Sasaki T, Nonaka S, Hayashi T, Takisawa M, Horiuchi M, Hirata T, Kasuya E (2005) Bovine posterior pituitary extract stimulates prolactin release from the anterior pituitary gland in vitro and in vivo in cattle. Reprod Domest Anim 40(2):184–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  616. Hassan HA, Hsiung HM, Zhang X Y, Smith DP, Smiley DL Heinman ML (1995) Characterization of growth hormone‐releasing hormone (GH-RH) binding to cloned porcine GH-RH receptor. Peptides 16:1469–1473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  617. Hauger RL, Aguilera G (1993) Regulation of pituitary corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) receptors by CRH: interaction with vasopressin. Endocrinology 133:1708–1714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  618. Haviv F, Fitzpatrick TD, Nichols CJ, Bush EN, Diaz G, Bammert G, Nguyen AT, Johnson ES, Knittle J, Greer J (1994) In vitro and in vivo activities of reduced-size antagonists of luteinizing hormone‐releasing hormone. J Med Chem 37:701–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  619. Haviv F, Fitzpatrick TD; Swenson RE, Nichols CJ, Mort NA, Bush EN, Diaz G, Bammert G, Nguyen A, Rhutasel NS, Nellans HG, Hoffman DJ, Johnson ES, Greer J (1993) Effect of N-methyl substitution of peptide bonds in luteinizing hormone‐releasing hormone agonists. J Med Chem 36:363–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  620. Hayashida T, Li CH (1952) Enhancement of adrenocorticotropic hormone activity by alum in normal 21-day old rats. Endocrinology 50:187–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  621. Haynie TP, Winzler RJ, Matovinovic J, Carr EA Jr, Beierwaltes WH (1962) Thyroid‐stimulating and exophthalmos‐producing activity of biochemically altered thyrotropin. Endocrinology 71:782–789PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  622. Hazum E, Keinan D (1983) Gonadotropin releasing‐hormone receptors: photoaffinity labeling with an antagonist. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 110:116–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  623. Hebborn P (1971) Progestional agents. In: Turner RD, Hebborn P (eds) Screening methods in pharmacology, Vol II. Academic Press, New York, pp 105–119Google Scholar
  624. Hedge GA, Huffman LJ (1987) Vasopressin and endocrine function. In: Gash DM, Boer GJ (eds) Vasopressin. Principles and properties. Plenum, New York, pp 435–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  625. Hefti E, Trechsel U, Fleisch H, Schenk R (1981) Increase of whole-body calcium and skeletal mass in normal and osteoporotic adult rats treated with parathyroid hormone. Clin Sci 62:389–396Google Scholar
  626. Heiman Ml, Nekola MV, Murphy WA, Lance VA, Coy DH (1985) An extremely sensitive in vitro model for elucidating structure‐activity relationships of growth hormone‐releasing factor analogs. Endocrinology 116:410–415Google Scholar
  627. Heinrichs SC, De Souza EB, Schulteis G, Lapsansky JL, Grigoriadis DE (2002) Brain penetrance, receptor occupancy and antistress in vivo efficacy of a small molecule corticotropin releasing factor type 1 receptor selective antagonist. Neuropsychopharmacology 27:194–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  628. Heming AE (1964) Animal techniques for evaluating thyroid and antithyroid agents. In: Nodine JH, Siegler PE (eds) Animal and clinical pharmacologic techniques in drug evaluation. Year Book Medical, Chicago, Ill, pp 530–534Google Scholar
  629. Henderson KM, McNatty KP (1975) A biochemical hypothesis to explain the mechanism of luteal regression. Prostaglandins 9:779–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  630. Herman JP, Sladek CD, Hansen CT, Gash DM (1986) Characterization of a new rodent model of diabetes insipidus: the Roman high avoidance rat homozygous for diabetes insipidus. Neuroendocrinology 43(3):340–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  631. Hernandez JF, Kornreich W, Rivier C, Miranda A, Yamamoto G, Andrews J, Taché Y, Vale W, Rivier J (1993) Synthesis and relative potencies of new constrained CRF antagonists. J Med Chem 36:2860–2867PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  632. Hershberger LG, Shipley EG, Meyer RK (1953) Myotrophic activity of 19‐nortestotestone and other steroids determined by modified levator ani muscle method. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 83:175–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  633. Hertan R, Farnworth PG, Fitzsimmons KL, Robertson DM (1999) Identification of high affinity binding sites for inhibin on ovine pituitary cells in culture. Endocrinology 140:6–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  634. Hilton JM, Chai SY, Sexton PM (1995) In vitro autoradiographic localization of the calcitonin receptor isoforms, C1a and C1b, in rat brain. Neuroscience 69:1223–1237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  635. Hinuma S, Hosoya M, Ogi K, Tanaka H, Nagai Y, Onda H (1994) Molecular cloning and functional expression of human thyrotropin‐releasing hormone (TRH) receptor gene. Biochim Biophys Acta 1219:251–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  636. Hirsch KS, Jones CD, Audia JE, Andersson S, McQuaid L, Stamm NB, Neubauer BL, Pennington P, Toomey RE, Russell DW (1993) LY191704: a selective, nonsteroidal inhibitor of human steroid 5α-reductase type 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:5277–5281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  637. Hirsch PF, Voelkel EF, Musnon PL (1964) Thyrocalcitonin: hypocalcemic hypophosphatemic principle of the thyroid gland. Science 146:412–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  638. Hisaw FL (1929) The corpus luteum hormone. I. Experimental relaxation of the pelvic ligaments of the guinea pig. Physiol Zool 2:59–79Google Scholar
  639. Hobel CJ, Arora CP, Korst LM (1999) Corticotropin‐releasing hormone and CRH-binding protein. In: Sandman CA, Chronwall BM, Strand FL, Flynn FW, Beckwith B, Nachman RJ (eds) Neuropeptides. Structure and function in biology and behavior. Ann NY Acad Sci 897:54–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  640. Hochhaus G (2004) New developments in corticosteroids. Proc Am Thorac Soc 1:269–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  641. Hochhaus G, Druzgala P, Hochhaus R, Huang MJ, Bodor N (1991) Glucocorticoid activity and structure activity relationships in a series of some novel 17α-ether‐substituted steroids: influence of 17α-substituents. Drug Des Discov 8:117–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  642. Hofland LJ, van Koetsfeld PM, Verleun TM, Lamberts SWJ (1989) Glycoprotein alpha-subunit and prolactin release by cultured pituitary adenoma cells from acromegalic patients: correlation with GH release. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 30:601–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  643. Hogben LT, Schlapp W (1924) Studies on the pituitary. III. The vasomotor activity of pituitary extracts throughout the vertebrate series. Q J Exp Physiol 14:229–258Google Scholar
  644. Hogben LT, Schlapp W, Macdonald AD (1924) Studies on the pituitary IV. Quantitative comparison of pressor activity. Q J Exp Physiol 14:301–318Google Scholar
  645. Hohlweg W, Laschet U, Dörner G, Daume E (1960) Der NTQ-Test, eine einfache Testierungsmethode für Corticotropin- und Depot‐Corticotropin-Präparate. Acta Endocrinol 35:501–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  646. Hollenberg SM, Weinberger C, Ong ES, Cerelli G, Oro A, Lebo R, Thompson EB, Rosenfeld MG, Evans RM (1985) Primary structure and expression of a functional human glucocorticoid receptor cDNA. Nature 318:635–641PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  647. Hollon T, Yoshimura FK (1989) Variation in enzymatic transient gene expression assays. Anal Biochem 182:411–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  648. Holtkamp DE, Ochs S, Pfeiffer CC, Heming AE (1955) Determination of the oxygen consumption of groups of rats. Endocrinology 56:93–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  649. Holton P (1948) A modification of the method of Dale and Laidlaw for the standardization of posterior pituitary extract. Br J Pharmacol 3:328–334Google Scholar
  650. Holtz F (1937) Wirkstoffe der Nebenschilddrüsen. In: Heubner W, Schüller J (eds) Handbuch der experimentellen Pharmakologie, Ergänzungswerk, Vol 3. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 151–161Google Scholar
  651. Horimoto M, Nishikawa M, Yoshikawa N, Inada N (1989) A sensitive and practical bioassay for thyrotropin using cultured FRTL-5 cells: assessment of bioactivity for serum TSH in patients with chronic renal failure. Acta Endocrinol 121:191–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  652. Horita A (1998) An update on the CNS actions of TRH and its analogs. Life Sci 62:1443–1448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  653. Horita A, Carino MA, Lai H (1986) Pharmacology of thyrotropin‐releasing hormone. Ann Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 26:311–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  654. Horne WC, Shyu J-F, Chakraborty M, Baron R (1994) Signal transduction by calcitonin. Multiple ligands, receptors, and signaling pathways. Trends Endocrinol Metab 5:395–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  655. Horváth JE, Ertl T, Qin T, Groot K, Schally AV (1995) LH-RH and its antagonist Cetrorelix inhibit growth of JAR human chorioncarcinoma cells in vitro. Int J Oncol 6:969–975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  656. Horváth JE, Groot K, Schally AV (1995) Growth hormone‐releasing hormone stimulates cAMP release from superfused rat pituitary cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:1856–1860PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  657. Horwitz KB, Zava DT, Thilager AK, Jensen EM, McGuire WL (1978) Steroid receptor analyses of nine human breast cancer cell lines. Cancer Res 38:2434–2437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  658. Houssami S, Findlay DM, Brady CL, Martin TJ, Epand RM, Moore EE, Murayama E, Tamura T, Orlowski RC, Sexton PM (1994) Different structural requirements exist for calcitonin receptor binding specificity and adenylate cyclase activation. Mol Pharmacol 47:798–809Google Scholar
  659. Howitt SG, Poyner DR (1997) The selectivity and structural determinants of peptide antagonists at the CGRP receptor of rat, L6 myocytes. Br J Pharmacol 121:1000–1004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  660. Howl J, Wheatley M (1995) Molecular pharmacology of V1a vasopressin receptors. Gen Pharmacol 26:1143–1152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  661. Hoyer PB (1998) Regulation of luteal regression: the ewe as a model. J Soc Gynec Invest 5:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  662. Hoyte RM, Brown TJ, MacLusky NJ, Hochberg RB (1993) 7a-Methyl-17α-(E-2′-[125I]iodovinyl)-19‐nortestosterone: a new radioligand for the detection of the androgen receptor. Steroids 58:13–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  663. Hruby VJ, Chow MS (1990) Conformational and structural considerations in oxytocin‐receptor binding and biological activity. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 30:501–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  664. Hsu-Wong S, Katchman SD, Ledo I, Wu M, Khillan J, Bashir MM, Rosenbloom M, Uitto J (1994) Tissue‐specific and developmentally regulated expression of human elastin promoter activity in transgenic mice. J Biol Chem 269:18072–18075PubMedGoogle Scholar
  665. Hsueh AJW, Adashi EY, Jones PBC, Welsh TH (1984) Hormonal regulation of the differentiation of cultured ovarian granulosa cells. Endocr Rev 5:76–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  666. Hsueh AJW, Erickson GF, Papkoff H (1983) Effect of diverse mammalian gonadotrophins on estrogen and progesterone production by cultured rat granulosa cells. Arch Biochem Biophys 225:505–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  667. Hu X, Li S, McMahon EG, Lala D, Rudolph AE (2005) Molecular mechanisms of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism by eplerenone. Mini Rev Med Chem 5:709–718PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  668. Huether G (1993) The contribution of extrapineal sites of melatonin synthesis to circulating melatonin levels in higher vertebrates. Experientia 49:665–670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  669. Huether G (1994) Melatonin synthesis in the gastrointestinal tract and the impact of nutritional factors on circulating melatonin. Ann NY Acad Sci 719:146–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  670. Huether G (1996) Melatonin as an antiaging drug: between facts and fantasy. Gerontology 42:87–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  671. Hughes JP (1985) The nature and regulation of the receptors for pituitary growth hormone. Annu Rev Physiol 47:469–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  672. Hughes RN (1968) Behaviour of male and female rats with a free choice of two environments differing in novelty. Anim Behav 16:92–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  673. Humm AW, Schneider MR (1990) Entwicklung nichtsteroidaler Antiandrogene: 4‐Nitro‐3‐trifluormethyldiphenylamine. Arch Pharmacol 323:83–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  674. Humphreys MH (2007) Cardiovascular and renal actions of melanocyte‐stimulating hormone peptides. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 16(1):32–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  675. Humphries J, Wan YP, Folkers K (1978) Inhibitory analogues of the luteinizing hormone‐releasing hormone having D-aromatic residues in positions 2 and 6 and variation in position 3. J Med Chem 21:120–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  676. Hunt G (1995) Melanocyte‐stimulating hormone: a regulator of human melanocyte physiology. Pathobiology 63:12–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  677. Hurd C, Moudgil VK (1988) Characterization of R5020 and RU486 binding to progesterone receptor from calf uterus. Biochemistry 27:3618–3623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  678. Hussain A, Zimmerman CA, Boose JA, Froulich J, Richardson A, Horowitz RS, Collins MT, Lash RW (1996) Large scale synthesis of recombinant human thyrotropin using methotrexate amplification: chromatographic, immunological, and biological characterization. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81:1184–1188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  679. Huszar D, Lynch CA, Fairchild‐Huntress V, Dunmore JH, Fang Q, Berkemeier RL, Gu W, Hesterson RA, Boston BA, Cone RD, Smith FJ, Campfield LA, Burn P, Lee F (1997) Targeted disruption of the melanocortin‐4 receptor results in obesity in mice. Cell 88:131–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  680. Huxley JS, Hogben LT (1922) Experiments on amphibian metamorphosis and pigment responses in relation to internal secretions. Proc R Soc Biol 93:36–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  681. Hwang KJ, Carlson KE, Anstead GM, Katzenellenbogen JA (1992) Donor-acceptor tetrahydrochrysenes, inherently fluorescent, high-affinity ligands for the estrogen receptor: binding and fluorescence characteristics and fluorometric assay of receptor. Biochemistry 31:11536–11545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  682. Härd T, Kellenbach E, Boelens R, Maler BA, Dahlman K, Freedman LP, Carlstedt-Duke J, Yamamoto KR, Gustafsson JÅ, Kaptein R (1990) Solution structure of the glucocorticoid receptor DNA-binding domain. Science 249:157–160Google Scholar
  683. Häusler A, Schenkel L, Krähenbühl C, Monnet G, Bhatnagar AS (1989) An in vitro method to determine the selective inhibition of estrogen biosynthesis by aromatase inhibitors. J Steroid Biochem 33:125–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  684. Hötten G, Neidhardt H, Schneider C, Pohl J (1995) Cloning of a new member of the TGF-β family: a putative new activin βC chain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 206:608–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  685. Ichikawa K, DeGroot LJ (1987a) Purification and characterization of rat liver nuclear thyroid hormone receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:3420–3424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  686. Ichikawa K, DeGroot LJ (1987b) Thyroid hormone receptors in a human hepatoma cell line: multiple receptor forms on isoelectric focusing. Mol Cell Endocrinol 51:135–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  687. Ichikawa K, Hashizume K (1991) Use of aqueous two-phase partitioning to study thyroid hormone receptor. In: Greenstein B (ed) Neuroendocrine research methods, Vol 1. Harwood, Chur, pp 149–159Google Scholar
  688. Ichikawa K, Hashizume K, Miyamoto T, Nishii Y, Yamauchi K, Ohtsuka H, Yamada T (1988) Conformational transition of thyroid hormone receptor upon hormone binding: demonstration by aqueous two-phase partitioning. J Endocrinol 119:431–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  689. Iehlè C, Délos S, Filhol O, Martin PM (1993) Baculovirus‐directed expression of human prostatic steroid 5α-reductase 1 in an active form. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 46:177–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  690. Iehlè C, Délos S, Guirou O, Tate R, Raynaud JP, Martin PM (1995) Human prostatic steroid 5α-reductase isoforms: a comparative study of selective inhibitors. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 54:273–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  691. Igarashi M, McCann SM (1964) A new sensitive bioassay for follicle‐stimulating hormone. Endocrinology 74:440–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  692. Iizuka H, Ohkuma N, Ohkawara A (1985) Effects of retinoids on the cyclic AMP system of pig skin epidermis. J Invest Dermatol 85:324–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  693. Ikeda H, Chiu SC, Kuzuya N, Uchimura H, Nagataki S (1984) Effects of in vivo triiodothyronine and long acting thyroid stimulator (LATS) administration on the in vitro thyroid cAMP response to thyrotrophin and LATS. Acta Endocrinol 106:193–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  694. Ikeda H, Nagataki S (1983) Lack of refractoriness to stimulation with long acting thyroid stimulator of thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid hormone secretion in mice in vivo. Acta Endocrinol 102:392–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  695. Ilondo MM, Vanderschueren‐Lodeweyckx M, DeMeyts P (1991) Measuring growth hormone activity through receptor and binding protein assays. Horm Res 36 [Suppl 1]:21–36Google Scholar
  696. Imperato‐McGinley J, Sanchez RS, Spencer JR, Yee B, Vaughan D (1992) Comparison of the effects of the 5α-reductase inhibitor Finasteride and the antiandrogen Flutamide on prostate and genital differentiation: dose-response studies. Endocrinology 131:1149–1156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  697. Imse V, Holzapfel G, Hinney B, Kuhn W, Wuttke W (1992) Comparison of luteinizing hormone pulsatility in the serum of women suffering from polycystic ovarian disease using a bioassay and five different immunoassays. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 74:1053–1061PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  698. Ingle DJ (1944) Physiology and chemistry of hormones. American Association for the Advancement of Science, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  699. Inomata N, Akiyama M, Kubota N, Jüppner H (1995) Characterization of a novel parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor with specificity for the carboxy‐terminal region of PTH-(1–84). Endocrinology 136:4732–4740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  700. Inouye K, Otsuka H (1987) ACTH: Structure‐function relationship. In: Li CH (ed) Hormonal proteins and peptides, Vol XIII. Academic Press, New York, pp 1–29Google Scholar
  701. Inouye S, Guo Y, de Paolo L, Shimonaka M, Ling N, Shimasaki S (1991) Recombinant expression of human follistatin with 315 and 288 amino acids: chemical and biological comparison with native porcine follistatin. Endocrinology 129:815–822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  702. Isaksson OGP, Edén S, Jansson JO (1985) Mode of action of pituitary growth hormone on target cells. Annu Rev Physiol 47:483–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  703. Ishikawa A, Imagawa M, Hashida S, Yoshitake S, Hamaguchi Y, Ueno T (1983) Enzyme labeling of antibodies and their fragments for enzyme immunoassay and immunocytochemistry. J Immunoassay 4:209–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  704. Isomaa V, Pajunen AE, Bardin CW, Jänne OA (1982) Nuclear androgen receptors in the mouse kidney: validation of a new assay. Endocrinology 111:833–843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  705. Iwasaki K, Mishima E, Miura M, Sakai N, Shimao S (1995) Effect of RU 486 on the atrophogenic and antiinflammatory effects of glucocorticoids in skin. J Dermatol Sci 10:151–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  706. Iwasawa A, Tomizawa KL, Wakabayashi K, Kato Y (1994) Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) of gonadotropins. Exp Clin Endocrinol 102:39–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  707. Jacks T, Smith R, Judith F, Schleim K, Frazier E, Chen H, Krupa D, Hora D Jr, Nargund R, Patchett A, Hickey G (1996) MK-0677, a potent, novel, orally active growth hormone (GH) secretagogue: GH, insulin-like growth factor I, and other hormonal responses in beagles. Endocrinology 137:5284–5289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  708. Jacobs LS (1979) Prolactin. In: Jaffe BM, Behrmann HR (eds) Methods of hormone radioimmunoassay. Academic Press, New York, pp 199–222Google Scholar
  709. Jacobson L, Brooke S, Sapolsky R (1993) Corticosterone is a preferable ligand for measuring brain corticosteroid receptors: competition by RU 28362 and RU 26752 for dexamethasone binding in rat hippocampal cytosol. Brain Res 625:84–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  710. Jakubowiak A, Janecki A, Steinberger A (1989) Similar effects of inhibin and cycloheximide on gonadotropin release in superfused pituitary cell cultures. Biol Reprod 41:454–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  711. Jansen SL, Forbes DA, Duncan V, Morgan DG (2006) Melatonin for cognitive impairment [review]. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD003802Google Scholar
  712. Janszen FHA, Cooke BA, van Driel MJA, van der Molen HJ (1976) Purification and characterization of Leydig cells from rat testes. J Endocrinol 70:345–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  713. Jard S, Bockaert J, Rajerison R (1976) Vasopressin receptors. In: Blecher M (ed) Methods in receptor research, Part II. Dekker, New York, pp 667–703Google Scholar
  714. Jard S, Gaillard RC, Guillon G, Marie J, Schoenenberg P, Muller AF, Manning M, Sawyer WH (1986) Vasopressin antagonists allow demonstration of a novel type of vasopressin receptor in the rat adenohypophysis. Mol Pharmacol 30:171–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  715. Jarowska-Feil L, Budziszewska B, Lason W (1995) The effect of single and repeated morphine administration on the level of thyrotropin‐releasing hormone and its receptors in the rat brain. Neuropeptides 29:343–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  716. Jausons‐Loffreda N, Balaguer P, Auzou G, Pons M (1994) Development of specific bioluminescent in vitro assays for selecting potential antimineralocorticoids. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 49:31–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  717. Jeffcoate SL, Bacon RRA, Beastall GH, Divers MJ, Franks S, Seth J (1986) Assays for prolactin: guidelines for the provision of a clinical biochemistry service. Ann Clin Biochem 23:638–651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  718. Jeffcoate SL, Linton EA, Lira O, White N (1983) Age‐dependent changes in the brain content, enzymic inactivation, and hypophysiotropic action of TRH in the rat. In: Griffiths EC, Bennett GW (eds) Thyrotropin‐releasing hormone. Raven, New York, pp 145–155Google Scholar
  719. Jeng YJ, Lolait SJ, Strakova Z, Chen C, Copland JA, Mellman D, Hellmich MR, Soloff MS (1996) Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the oxytocin receptor from a rat pancreatic cell line (RINm5F). Neuropeptides 30:557–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  720. Jenkins EP, Andersson S, Imperato‐McGinley J, Wilson J, Russell DW (1992) Genetic and pharmacological evidence for more than one human steroid 5α-reductase. J Clin Invest 89:293–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  721. Jennes L, Conn PM (1994) Gonadotropin releasing hormone and its receptors in brain. Front Neuroendocrinol 15:51–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  722. Jensen EV (1996) Steroid hormones, receptors, and antagonists. Ann NY Acad Sci 784:1–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  723. Jia XC, Hsueh AJW (1985) Sensitive in vitro bioassay for the measurement of serum follicle‐stimulating hormone. Neuroendocrinology 41:445–448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  724. Jia XC, Hsueh AJW (1986) Granulosa cell aromatase bioassay for follicle‐stimulating hormone: validation and application of the method. Endocrinology 119:1570–1577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  725. Jia XC, Perlas E, Su JGJ, Moran F, Lasley BL, Ny T, Hsueh AJW (1993) Luminescence luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin (LH/CG) bioassay: measurement of serum bioactive LH/CG during early pregnancy in human and macaque. Biol Reprod 49:1310–1316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  726. Jinsi-Parimoo A, Gershengorn MC (1997) Constitutive activity of native thyrotropin‐releasing hormone receptors revealed using a protein kinase C-responsive reporter gene. Endocrinology 138:1471–1475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  727. Jockenhövel F, Peterson MA, Johnston PD, Swerdloff RS (1991) Directly iodinated rat relaxin as a tracer for use in radioimmunoassays. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 29:71–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  728. Johnston JO, Hunter KK (1970) Prostaglandin F: mode of action in pregnant hamster. Physiologist 13:235Google Scholar
  729. Jones KE, Brubaker JH, Chin WW (1996) An alternative splice variant of the mouse TRH receptor mRNA is the major form expressed in the pituitary gland. J Mol Endocrinol 16:197–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  730. Jones MS (1939) A study of thyrotropic hormone in clinical states. Endocrinology 24:665–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  731. Jones TK, Pathirana C, Goldman ME, Hamann LG, Farmer LJ, Ianiro T, Johnson MG, Bender SL, Mais DE, Stein RB (1996) Discovery of novel intracellular receptor modulating drugs. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 56:61–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  732. Jordan VC, Dix CJ, Rowsby L, Prestwich G (1977) Studies on the mechanism of action of the nonsteroidal antioestrogen tamoxifen (I.C.I. 46,474) in the rat. Mol Cell Endocrinol 7:177–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  733. Juaneda C, Dumont Y, Quirion R (2000) The molecular pharmacology of CGRP and related peptide receptor subtypes. Trends Pharmacol Sci 21:432–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  734. Junkmann K (1955) Über protrahiert wirksame Corticoide. Naunyn‐Schmiedebergs Arch Exp Pathol Pharmacol 227:212–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  735. Junkmann K (1957) Long-acting steroids in reproduction. Rec Prog Horm Res 13:389–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  736. Junkmann K, Schoeller W (1932) Über das thyreotrope Hormon des Hypophysenvorderlappens. Klin Wschr 11:1176–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  737. Jänne O, Kontula K, Vihko R (1976) Progestin receptors in human tissues: concentration and binding kinetics. J Steroid Biochem 7:1061–1068PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  738. Kagan A, Glick SM (1978) Oxytocin. In: Jaffe BM, Behrman HR (eds) Methods of hormone radioimmunoassay. Academic Press, New York, pp 327–339Google Scholar
  739. Kagawa CM (1960) Blocking the renal electrolyte effects of mineralocorticoids with an orally active steroidal spironolactone. Endocrinology 67:125–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  740. Kagawa CM, Brown EA (1960) Ability of isopregnenolone‐21‐carboxylates to block renal effects of desoxycorticosterone and aldosterone in rats. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 105:648–650PubMedGoogle Scholar
  741. Kagawa CM, Shipley EG, Meyer RK (1952) A biological method for determining small quantities of sodium retaining substances. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 80:281–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  742. Kagoshima M, Wilcke T, Ito K, Tsaprouni L, Barnes PJ, Punchard N, Adcock IM (2001) Glucocorticoid‐mediated transrepression is regulated by histone acetylation and DNA methylation. Eur J Pharmacol 429:327–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  743. Kaijkowsi EM, Price LA, Pausch MH, Young KH, Ozenberger BA (1997) Investigation of growth hormone releasing hormone receptor structure and activity using yeast expression technologies. J Recept Signal Transduct Res 17:1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  744. Kajita S, Iizuka H, Hirokawa M, Tsutsui M, Mizumoto T (1986) Topical application of potent glucocorticoids augments epidermal beta‐adrenergic adenylate cyclase response in vivo Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 66:491–496Google Scholar
  745. Kakar SS, Malik MT, Winters SJ, Mazhawidza W (2004) Gonadotropin‐releasing hormone receptors: structure, expression, and signaling transduction. Vitam Horm 69:151–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  746. Kakar SS, Musgrove LC, Devor DC, Sellers JC, Neill JD (1992) Cloning, sequencing, and expression of human gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 189:289–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  747. Kalu DN, Echon R, Hollis BW (1990) Modulation of ovarectomy‐related bone loss by parathyroid hormone in rats. Mechan Ageing Dev 56:49–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  748. Kangas L (1992) Agonistic and antagonistic effects of antiestrogens in different target organs. Acta Oncol 31:143–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  749. Kangasniemi M, Dodge K, Pemberton AE, Huhtaniemi I, Meistrich ML (1996) Suppression of mouse spermatogenesis by a gonadotropin‐releasing hormone antagonist and antiandrogen. Failure to protect against radiation‐induced damage. Endocrinology 137:949–955PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  750. Kapas S, Cammas FM, Hinson JP, Clark AJL (1996) Agonistic and receptor binding properties of adrenocorticotropin peptides using the cloned mouse adrenocorticotropin receptor expressed in a stably transfected HeLa cell line. Endocrinology 137:32901–3294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  751. Kapp JF, Gliwitzki B, Josefiuk P, Weishaupt W (1977) Dermale und systemische Nebenwirkungen von Fluocortin‐butylester (FCB). Hautreißversuche im Vergleich mit Wirkstoffen aus Handelspräparaten. Arzneimittelforschung 27:2206–2213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  752. Kapsenberg ML, Van der Pouw-Kraan T, Stiekema FEM, Schootenmeijer A, Bos JD (1988) Direct and indirect nickel‐specific stimulation of T lymphocytes from patients with allergic contact dermatitis to nickel. Eur J Immunol 18:977–982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  753. Kapurniotu A, Taylor JW (1995) Structural and conformational requirements for human calcitonin activity: design, synthesis, and study of lactam‐bridged analogues. J Med Chem 38:836–847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  754. Karim SMM, Ratnam SS, Ilancheran A (1977) Menstrual induction with vaginal administration of 16,16 dimethyl trans-Δ2-PGE1 methyl ester (ONO 802). Prostaglandins 14:615–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  755. Karvonen U, Kallio PJ, Jänne OA, Palvimo JJ (1997) Interaction of androgen receptors with androgen response element in intact cells. J Biol Chem 272:15973–15979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  756. Kask A, Mutulis F, Muceniece R, Pahkla R, Mutule I, Wikberg JS, Rago L, Schioth HB (1998b) Discovery of a novel superpotent and selective melanocortin‐4 receptor antagonist (HS024): evaluation in vitro and in vivo. Endocrinology 139:5006–5014PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  757. Kask A, Rago L, Mutulis F, Pahkla R, Wikberg JES, Schioth HB (1998a) Selective antagonist for the melanocortin‐4 receptor (HS014) increases food uptake in free-feeding rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 245:90–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  758. Kastin AJ, Viosca A, Schally AV (1969) Assay of mammalian MSH release‐regulating factors. Proceedings of the Workshop Conference: Hypophysiotropic Hormones of the Hypothalamus: Assay and Chemistry. Tucson, ArizonaGoogle Scholar
  759. Katchman SD, Del Monaco M, Wu M, Brown D, Hsu-Wong S, Uitto J (1995) A transgenic mouse model provides a novel biological assay of topical glucocorticosteroid potency. Arch Dermatol 131:1274–1278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  760. Katzenellenbogen BS, Ferguson ER, Lan NC (1977) Fundamental differences in the action of estrogens and antiestrogens on the uterus: comparison between compounds with similar duration of action. Endocrinology 100:1252–1259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  761. Katznelson L, Riskind PN, Saxe VC, Klibanski A (1998) Prolactin pulsatile characteristics in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83(3):761–764PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  762. Kaufmann M, Muff R, Born W, Fischer JA (1994) Functional expression of a stably transfected parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone‐related protein receptor complementary DNA in CHO cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol 104:21–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  763. Kelly JM, Abrahams JM, Phillips PA, Mendelsohn FAO, Grzonka Z, Johnston CI (1989) [125J]-[d(CH2)5,Sar7]AVP: a selective ligand for V1 vasopressin receptors. J Recept Res 9:27–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  764. Kenny N, Robinson J (1986) Prostaglandin F-induced functional luteolysis: interactions of LH, prostaglandin F and forskolin in cyclic AMP and progesterone synthesis in isolated rat luteal cells. J Endocrinol 111:415–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  765. Ketelslegers JM, Catt KJ (1974) Receptor binding properties of 125I-hFSH prepared by enzymatic iodination. J Clin Endocrin Metab 39:1159–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  766. Keutmann HT, McIlroy PJ, Bergert ER, Ryan RJ (1983) Chemically deglycosylated chorionic gonadotropin subunits: characterization and biological properties. Biochemistry 22:3067–3072PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  767. Khan SA, Syed V, Fröysa B, Lindberg M, Diczfalusy E (1984) Influence of gonadectomy on isoelectrofocusing profiles of pituitary gonadotropins in rhesus monkeys. J Med Primatol 14:177–194Google Scholar
  768. Kincl FA (1965) Anabolic steroids. In: Dorfman RI (ed) Methods in hormone research, Vol IV. Academic Press, New York, pp 21–76Google Scholar
  769. Kitamura K, Kanagawa K, Kawamoto M, Ichiki Y, Nakamura S, Matsuo H, Ato T (1993) Adrenomedullin, a novel hypotensive peptide isolated from human phaeochromocytoma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 192:553–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  770. Klee GG, Preissner CM, Schryver PG, Taylor RL, Kao PC (1992) Multisite immunochemiluminometric assay for simultaneously measuring whole-molecule and amino-terminal fragments of human parathyrin. Clin Chem 35:628–635Google Scholar
  771. Klein U, Jurzak M, Gerstberger R, Fahrenholz F (1995) A new tritiated oxytocin receptor radioligand – synthesis and application for localization of central oxytocin receptors. Peptides 16:851–857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  772. Kleinman D, Roberts CT Jr, LeRoith D, Schally AV, Levy J, Sharoni Y (1993) Regulation of endometrial cancer cell growth by insulin-like growth factors and the luteinizing hormone‐releasing hormone antagonist SB-75. Regul Peptide 48:91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  773. Kleinman HK, McGarvey ML, Hassel JR, Star VL, Cannon FB, Laurie GW, Martin GR (1986) Basement membrane complexes with biological activity. Biochemistry 25:312–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  774. Klonisch T, Hombach‐Klonisch S, Froehlich C, Kauffold J, Steger K, Steinetz BG, Fischer B (1999) Canine preprorelaxin: nucleic acid sequence and localization within the canine placenta. Biol Reprod 60:551–557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  775. Kloosterboer HJ, Deckers GH, Schoonen WGEJ (1994) Pharmacology of two new very selective antiprogestagens: Org 31710 and Org 31806. Human Reprod 9 [Suppl 1]:47–52Google Scholar
  776. Kloosterboer HJ, Deckers GHJ, van der Heuvel MJ, Loozen HJJ (1988a) Screening for antiprogestagens by receptor studies and bioassays. J Steroid Biochem 31:567–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  777. Kloosterboer HJ, Vonk‐Noordegraaf CA, Turpijn EW (1988b) Selectivity in progesterone and androgen receptor binding of progestagens used in oral contraceptives. Contraception 38:325–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  778. Knape JTA, van Zwieten PA (1988) Vasoconstrictor activity of vasopressin in the pithed rat. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 291:142–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  779. Knight PG, Muttukrishna S, Groome NP (1996) Development and application of a two-site enzyme immunoassay for the determination of `total' activin-A concentrations in serum and follicular fluid. J Endocrinol 148:267–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  780. Knight PG, Groome M, Beard AJ (1991) Development of a two-site immunoradiometric assay for dimeric inhibin using antibodies against chemically synthesized fragments of the α and β subunit. J Endocrinol 129:R9–R12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  781. Knight PG, Muttukrishna S (1994) Measurement of dimeric inhibin using a modified two-site immunoradiometric assay specific for oxidized (Met O) inhibin. J Endocrinol 141:417–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  782. Knox E, Auerbach VH (1955) The hormonal control of tryptophan peroxidase in the rat. J Biol Chem 214:307–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  783. Koch A, Hoppen HO, Dieleman SJ, Kooistra HS, Gunzel-Apel AR (2006) Effects of the dopamine agonist cabergoline on the pulsatile and TRH-induced secretion of prolactin, LH, and testosterone in male beagle dogs. Theriogenology 65(8):1666–1677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  784. Kohno H, Gandini O, Curtis SW, Korach KS (1994) Anti‐estrogenic activity in the yeast transcription system: estrogen receptor mediated agonist response. Steroids 59:572–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  785. Kontula K, Jänne O, Vihko R, de Jager E, de Visser J, Zeelen F (1975) Progesterone binding proteins: in vitro binding and biological activity of different steroidal ligands. Acta Endocrinol 78:574–592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  786. Koob GF (1999) Stress, corticotropin‐releasing factor, and drug addiction. In: Sandman CA, Chronwall BM, Strand FL, Flynn FW, Beckwith B, Nachman RJ (eds) Neuropeptides. Structure and function in biology and behavior. Ann NY Acad Sci 897:27–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  787. Kopp C, Vogel E, Rettori MC, Delagrange P, Guardiola-Lamaître B, Misslin R (1999a) Effects of melatonin on neophobic responses in different strain of mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 63:521–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  788. Kopp C, Vogel E, Rettori MC, Delagrange P, Renard P, Lesieur D, Misslin R (1999b) Antagonistic effects of S22153, a new mt1 and MT2 receptor ligand, on the neophobia‐reducing properties of melatonin in BALB/c mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 64:131–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  789. Korenchevsky V, Dennison M (1935) The assay of crystalline male sexual hormone (androsterone). Biochem J 29:1720–1731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  790. Kornreich WD, Galyean RG, Hernandez JF, Craig AG, Donaldson CJ, Yamamoto G, Rivier C, Vale W, Rivier J (1992) Alanine series of ovine corticotropin releasing factor (oCRF): a structure–activity relationship study. J Med Chem 35:1870–1876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  791. Kostich W, Chen A, Sperle K, Horlick RA, Patterson J, Largent BL (1996) Molecular cloning an expression analysis of human CRH receptor type 2 α and β isoforms. Soc Neurosci Abstr 22:609Google Scholar
  792. Kostich W, Chen A, Sperle K, Largent BL (1998) Molecular Identification and Analysis of a Novel Human Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF) Receptor: The CRF Receptor. Mol Endocrinol 12:1077–1085PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  793. Kostich WA, Chen A, Largent BL (1998) Molecular identification and analysis of a novel human corticotrophin‐releasing factor (CRF) receptor: the CRF2(γ) receptor. Mol Endocrinol 12:1077–1085PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  794. Koubovec D, Ronacher K, Stubsrud E, Louw A, Hapgood JP (2005) Synthetic progestins used in HRT have different glucocorticoid agonist properties. Mol Cell Endocrinol 242:23–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  795. Kovacs M, Gulyas J, Bajusz S, Schally AV (1988) An evaluation of intravenous, subcutaneous, and in vitro activity of new agmatine analogs of growth hormone‐releasing hormone hGH-RH(1-29)NH2. Life Sci 42:27–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  796. Kovács M, Halmos G, Groot K, Izdebski J, Schally AV (1996b) Chronic administration of a new potent agonist of growth hormone‐releasing hormone induces compensatory linear growth in growth hormone‐deficient rats: mechanism of action. Neuroendocrinology 64:169–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  797. Kovács M, Kineman RD, Schally AV, Zarándi M, Groot K, Frohman LA (1997) Effects of antagonists of growth hormone‐releasing hormone (GHRH) on GH and insulin-like growth factor I levels in transgenic mice overexpressing the human GHRH gene, an animal model of acromegaly. Endocrinology 138:4536–4542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  798. Kovács M, Koppán M, Mezö I, Teplán I, Flerkó B (1993) Antiovulatory doses of antagonists of LH-RH inhibit LH and progesterone but not FSH and estradiol release. J Neuroendocrinol 5:603–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  799. Kovács M, Zarándi M, Halmos G, Groot K, Schally AV (1996a) Effects of acute and chronic administration of a new potent antagonist of growth hormone‐releasing hormone in rats: mechanism of action. Endocrinology 137:5364–5369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  800. Kreitmair H (1928) Jodgehalt und Schilddrüsenwirkung. Zugleich Bekanntgabe einer biologischen Wertbestimmungsmethode für Schilddrüsenpräparate. Z Ges Exp Med 61:202–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  801. Kroc RL, Steinetz BG, Beach VL (1959) The effects of estrogens, progestagens, and relaxin in pregnant and nonpregnant laboratory rodents. Ann NY Acad Sci 75:942–980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  802. Kroc RL, Steinetz BG, Beach VL, Stasilli NR (1956) Bioassay of relaxin extracts in guinea pigs and mice, using a reference standard. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 16:966Google Scholar
  803. Krulich L, Fawcett CP (1977) The hypothalamic hypophysiotropic hormones. Int Rev Physiol 16:35–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  804. Krummen LA, Wilfinger WW, Baldwin DM (1991) Primary culture of pituitary cells and assessment of the direct effects of testosterone on pituitary function in vitro. In: Greenstein B (ed) Neuroendocrine research methods. Harwood, Chur, pp 57–69Google Scholar
  805. Kruse J (1986) Oxytocin: pharmacology and clinical application. J Fam Pract 23:473–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  806. Kuestner RE, Elrod RD, Grant FJ, Hagen FS, Kuijper JL, Matthewes SL, O'Hara PJ, Sheppard PO, Stroop SD, Thompson DL, Whitmore TE, Findlay DM, Houssami S, Sexton PM, Moore EE (1994) Cloning and characterization of an abundant subtype of the human calcitonin receptor. Mol Pharmacol 46:246–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  807. Kuhl H (1996) Comparative pharmacology of newer progestagens. Drugs 51:188–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  808. Kuhnz W, Beier S (1994) Comparative progestational and androgenic activity of norgestimate and levonorgestrel in the rat. Contraception 49:275–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  809. Kumar M, Slack E, Edwards A, Soliman H, Baghdiantz A, Foster GV, MacIntyre I (1965) A biological assay for calcitonin. J Endocrinol 33:469–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  810. Kuo MS, Bock MG, Freidinger RM, Guidfotti MT, Lis EV, Pawluczyk JM, Perlow DS, Pettibone DJ, Quigley AG, Reiss DR, Williams PD, Woyden CJ (1998) Nonpeptide oxytocin antagonists: potent, bioavailable analogs of L-371,257 containing A 1-R-(pyridyl)ethyl ether terminus. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 8:3081–3086PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  811. Kurz V, von Gaudecker B, Kranz A, Krisch B, Mentlein R (1995) Calcitonin gene-related peptide and its receptor in the thymus. Peptides 16:1497–1503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  812. LaPolt PS, Soto D, Su J-G, Campen CA, Vaughan J, Vale W, Hsueh AJW (1989) Activin stimulation of inhibin secretion and messenger RNA levels in cultured granulosa cells. Mol Endocrinol 3:1666–1673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  813. Labbé O, Desarnaud F, Eggerickx D, Vassart G, Parmentier M (1994) Molecular cloning of a mouse melanocortin 5 receptor gene widely expressed in peripheral tissues. Biochemistry 93:4543–4549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  814. Labhsetwar AP (1971) Luteolysis and ovulation induced by prostaglandin F in the hamster. Nature 230:528–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  815. Labhsetwar AP (1972a) New antifertility agent – an orally active prostaglandin – ICI 74,205. Nature 238:400–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  816. Labhsetwar AP (1972b) Luteolytic and ovulation‐inducing properties of prostaglandin F in pregnant mice. J Reprod Fertil 28:451–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  817. Labrie F, Ferland L, Lagace L, Drouin J, Asselin J, Azadian‐Boulanger G, Raynaud P (1977) High inhibitory activity of RU 5020, a pure progestin, at the hypothalamic‐hypophyseal level on gonadotropin secretion. Fertil Steril 28:1104–1112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  818. Labrie F, Poulin R, Simard J, Zhao HF, Labrie C, Dauvois S, Dumont M, Hatton AC, Poirier D, Mérand Y (1990) Interactions between estrogens, androgens, progestins, and glucocorticoids in ZR-75–1 human breast cancer cells. Ann NY Acad Sci 595:130–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  819. Lamond DR, Bindon BM (1966) The biological assay of follicle‐stimulating hormone in hypophysectomized immature mice. J Endocrinol 34:365–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  820. Landgrebe FW, Waring H (1950) Biological assay of the melanophore expanding hormone from the pituitary. In: Emmens CW (ed) Hormone assay. Academic Press, New York, pp 141–171Google Scholar
  821. Landgrebe FW, Waring H (1962) Melanophore‐expanding activity. In: Dorfman RI (ed) Methods in hormone research, Vol II. Academic Press, New York, pp 517–558Google Scholar
  822. Lapière CH, Chèvremont M (1953) Modifications des glandes sébacées par des hormones sexuelles appliquées localement sur la peau de Souris. CR Soc Biol (Paris) 147:1302–1306Google Scholar
  823. Laschet U, Hohlweg W (1960) Die Testierung neuer Glucocorticoidpräparate mit dem NTP-Test. Pharmazie 15:374–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  824. Laskov R, Scharff MD (1970) Synthesis, assembly, and secretion of gamma globulin by mouse myeloma cells. I. Adaptation of the Mervin plasma cell tumor-11 to culture, cloning and characterization of gamma globulin subunits. J Exp Med 131:515–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  825. Laycock JF, Chatterji U, Seckl JR, Gartside IB (1994) The abnormal quinine drinking aversion in the Brattleboro rat with diabetes insipidus is reversed by the vasopressin agonist DDAVP: a possible role for vasopressin in the motivation to drink. Physiol Behav 55:407–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  826. Layden SS, Tregear GW (1996) Purification and characterization of porcine prorelaxin. J Biochem Biophys Methods 31:69–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  827. Lazar MA (1991) Steroid and thyroid hormone receptors. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 20:681–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  828. Lebrethon MC, Naville D, Begeot M, Saez JM (1994) Regulation of corticotropin receptor number and messenger RNA in cultured human adrenocortical cells by corticotropin and angiotensin II. J Clin Invest 93:1828–1833PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  829. Lee CY, Ryan RJ (1972) Luteinizing hormone receptors: specific binding of human luteinizing hormone to homogenates of luteinized rat ovaries. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 69:3520–3523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  830. Lee CY, Ryan RJ (1973) Interaction of ovarian receptors with human luteinizing hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin. Biochemistry 12:4609–4619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  831. Lee LT, Siu FK, Tam JK, Lau IT, Wong AO, Lin MC, Vaudry H, Chow BK (2007) Discovery of growth hormone‐releasing hormones and receptors in nonmammalian vertebrates. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(7):2133–2138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  832. Lee TW, Eidne KA, Milligan G (1995) Signalling characteristics of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) receptor isoforms. Biochem Soc Trans 23:115Google Scholar
  833. Lee W, Mason AJ, Schwall R, Szonyi E, Mather JP (1989) Secretion of activin by interstitial cells in the testis. Science 243:396–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  834. Lefebvre P, Danze PM, Sablonniere B, Richard C, Formstecher P, Dautrevaux M (1988) Association of the glucocorticoid receptor binding with the 90K nonsteroid‐binding component is stabilized by both steroidal and nonsteroidal antiglucocorticoids in intact cells. Biochemistry 27:9186–9194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  835. Lefrancois L, Gaudreau P (1994) Identification of receptor binding pharmacophores of growth hormone‐releasing factor in rat adenopituitary. Neuroendocrinology 59:363–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  836. Leibowitz HM, Kupferman A (1974) Anti‐inflammatory effectiveness in the cornea of topically administered prednisolone. Invest Ophthalmol 13:757–763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  837. Leibowitz HM, Kupferman A, Stewart HR, Kimbrough RL (1978) Evaluation of dexamethasone acetate as a topical ophthalmic formulation. Am J Ophthalmol 86:418–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  838. Leibowitz HM, Ryan WJ, Kupferman A (1992) Comparative anti‐inflammatory efficacy of topical corticosteroids with low glaucoma‐inducing potential. Arch Ophthalmol 110:118–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  839. Leighton B, Cooper GJS (1988) Pancreatic amylin and calcitonin gene-related peptide cause resistance to insulin in skeletal muscle. Nature 335:632–634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  840. Lerner AB, Case JD, Takahashi Y, Lee Y, Mori W (1958) Isolation of melatonin, the pineal gland factor that lightens melanocytes. J Am Chem Soc 81:2587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  841. Lerner LJ, Holthaus FJ Jr, Thompson CR (1958) A non‐steroidal estrogen antagonist 1-(p-2‐diethylaminoethoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-2-p-methoxyphenyl ethanol. Endocrinology 63:295–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  842. Leroy-Martin B, Peyrat JP, Amrani S, Lorthioir M, Leonardelli J (1995) Analyse immunocytochimique des recepteurs prolactiniques (R-PRL) humains a l'aide d'anticorps anti‐idiotypes dans le cancers du sein humain. Ann Pathol 15:192–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  843. Lesnik RH, Mezick JA, Capetola R, Kligman LH (1989) Topical all-trans-retinoic acid prevents corticosteroid‐induced skin atrophy without abrogating the anti‐inflammatory effects. J Am Acad Dermatol 21:168–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  844. Leung PCK, Peng C (1996) Gonadotropin‐releasing hormone receptor: gene structure, expression and regulation. Biol Sig 5:63–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  845. Levesque C, Merand Y, Dufour JM, Labrie C, Labrie F (1991) Synthesis and biological activity of new halo‐steroidal anti‐estrogens. J Med Chem 34:1624–1630PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  846. Levine JE, Bauer-Dantoin AC, Besecke LM, Conaghan LA, Legan SJ, Meredith JM, Strobl FJ, Urban JH, Vogelsong KM, Wolfe AM (1991) Neuroendocrine regulation of the luteinizing hormone‐releasing hormone pulse generator in the rat. Recent Prog Horm Res 47:97–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  847. Li CH, Evans HM, Simpson ME (1945) Isolation and properties of the anterior pituitary growth hormone. J Biol Chem 159:353–366Google Scholar
  848. Li F, Kumar N, Tsong Y-Y, Monder C, Bardin CW (1997) Synthesis and progestional activity of 16‐methylene‐17α-hydroxy-19-norpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione and its derivatives. Steroids 62:403–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  849. Li G, Wang S, Gelehrter TD (2003) Identification of glucocorticoid receptor domains involved in transrepression of transforming growth factor-β action. J Biol Chem 278:41779–41788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  850. Li J, Matsuura JE, Waugh DJJ, Adrian TE, Abel PW, Manning MC, Smith DD (1997) Structure–activity studies on position 14 of human α-calcitonin gene-related peptide. J Med Chem 40:3071–3076PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  851. Li SL, Vuagnat B, Gruaz NM, Eshkol A, Sizonenko PC, Aubert ML (1994) Binding kinetics of the long-acting gonadotropin‐releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist Antide to rat pituitary GnRH receptors. Endocrinology 134:45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  852. Liang T, Cascieri MA, Cheung AH, Reynolds GF, Rasmusson GH (1985) Species differences in prostatic steroid 5α-reductase of rat, dog and human. Endocrinology 117:571–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  853. Liang T, Tymoczko JL, Chan KMB, Hung SC, Liao S (1977) Androgen action: receptors and rapid responses. In: Martini L, Motta M (eds) Androgens and antiandrogens. Raven, New York, pp 77–89Google Scholar
  854. Liao S, Howell DK, Chang TM (1974) Action of a nonsteroidal antiandrogen, flutamide, on the receptor binding and nuclear retention of 5α-dihydrotestosterone in rat ventral prostate. Endocrinology 94:1205–1208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  855. Liao S, Witte D, Schilling K, Chang C (1984) The use of a hydroxylapatite‐filter steroid receptor assay method in the study of the modulation of androgen receptor interaction. J Steroid Biochem 20:11–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  856. Liard JF (1988) Vasopressin antagonists and their use in animal studies. Kidney Int Suppl 26:S43–S47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  857. Liaw CW, Lovenberg TW, Barry G, Oltersdorf T, Grigoriadis DE, De Souza EB (1996) Cloning and characterization of the human corticotropin‐releasing factor-2 receptor complementary deoxyribonucleic acid. Endocrinology 137:72–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  858. Liebmann C, Nawrath S, Ludwig B, Paegelow I (1993) Pharmacological and molecular actions of the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, Hoe 140?in the rat uterus. Eur J Pharmacol 235:183–188