Reference Work Entry

Drug Discovery and Evaluation

pp 1719-1916


  • Hans Gerhard VogelAffiliated with


In the development of methods for endocrine investigation, many changes have occurred since the early period of animal investigation, in which extensive surgical procedures were used to remove endocrine organs in order to study their function by deficiency symptoms, and their active principles were replaced by organ extracts and hormone preparations of increasing purity and specificity of action. Much of the classical endocrinology has now been replaced by investigations of ever increasing sophistication and specificity. Where possible, surgical procedures are discarded and avoided. Studies are performed on intact animals with a minimum of stress and interference (noninvasive procedures). One example of early noninvasive investigation is the study of adrenal gland hormone secretion, by investigation of the urinary excretion of adrenal steroids and changes induced by specific procedures.

Where surgical procedures cannot be avoided, techniques for anesthetizing animals have changed ...

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